Department of Medicine and Surgery

PHILOSOPHY OF THE CURRICULUM

Reforms in medical education are informed by emerging challenges in healthcare delivery and administration. The curriculum of EUI College of Medical Sciences would be competency-based with significant students-directed learning and integration between pre-clinical and clinical training. New technologies for health and pedagogy would be deployed for improvement of learning.

STRUCTURE OF THE EUI MBBS PROGRAMME

The EUI Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree is a six-year full-time programme with the possibility of a five year programme with direct entry qualifications. A possibility of a Bachelor’s degree in basic sciences shall be awarded with an additional one year in basic sciences.  Students who are unable to proceed further in the MBBS programme shall be advised to continue with a Bachelor’s degree programme in the basic medical sciences amongst other options.

 

 

DEGREE CLASSIFICATION

The degree shall be unclassified. Excellence shall be recognised through the awards of distinction and prizes.

 

COMPETENCES OF THE GRADUATE OF THE EUI COLLEGE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

The College of Medical Sciences would ensure that its graduates are able to:

  1. Carry out appropriate consultations with patients
  2. Diagnose and negotiate management plans.
  • Provide immediate care for medical emergencies
  1. Carry out common medical procedures
  2. Communicate effectively and sensitively with patients, patients’ relations and other members of the health team
  3. Apply ethical and legal principles, and professionalism in medical practice
  • Use information and information technology effectively
  • Engage with population in the promotion of health and health education
  1. Demonstrate ability for lifelong self-directed learning
  2. Demonstrate capacity for research
  3. Demonstrate management and leadership skills.

TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT IN EUI CMS

  • Instructions in the Curriculum

Learning instructions in the College and Teaching Hospital will be mainly student-centred with lecturers as facilitators. In addition, sessions with experts from government and non-governmental agencies will complement these.

An objective of this curriculum is to ensure that medical students in each class have equivalent teaching and clinical exposures at the end of each session. These will be achieved by rotating the students through similar postings and lectures in any academic session with continuous assessment /examinationsat the end. The following instruction and assessment methods will be used.

 


Competency-Based Learning

This would be achieved through:

  1. Informing students of the expected competences at the beginning of each posting
  2. Learning-objective-directed teaching
  • Prioritisation of desired competences into “must know”, “should know” and “may know”.
  1. Assessment focused at testing the acquisition of the “expected competences,” would be based on “knows”, “knows how”, “shows how” and “does” in relevant skills.
  2. Assessment of students by teachers will be based on Novice, Fair, Competent, proficient and being an expert.
  3. Self-assessment by students will be based on poorly, supervised and independent
  • Allocating 60 percent of the teacher-student contact time for practical/clinical teaching sessions, with the remaining 40 percent on didactic teaching sessions/small-group teachings/ tutorials ().
  • Increased emphasis on problem-based approach with a concomitant reduction of large-group teaching sessions.

 

Self-directed learning/research and reflective learning

Self-directed learning through tutorials, e-learning and term papers, would be utilised to encourage students seek information independently and think in a critical and analytical manner.

Integrated system-based Learning

Integration of teaching and assessment would be “horizontal” if it is “concurrent,” in the preclinical or clinical disciplines, and “vertical” if it involves both disciplines “sequentially”. The integration ensures early exposure of the students to clinical aspects of medicine, better understanding and application of basic sciences to clinical medicine.

 

In this curriculum, integration will occur during the following courses:

  1. Integrated Core Basic Sciences (CBSs)– 200L/300L first semester (horizontal integration)
  2. Clinical Application of CBSs – 300L first semester (vertical integration)
  • Integrated Clinical Posting I – 300L second semester (horizontal integration)
  1. Integrated Clinical Posting II – 400L (vertical and horizontal integration)
  2. Core Lectures – 400L (vertical and horizontal integration)
  3. Integrated Block Posting I – III (Basic Medical Sciences) – 300L and 500L (horizontal integration)
  • Infectious Diseases Posting – 400L (horizontal and vertical integration).
  • 600L (Horizontal integration)

 

Community orientation

This ensures repeated contacts with the community by students of EUI which will encourage acquisition of appropriate competences in community orientation and care. Community orientation would ensure understanding of cultural diversity and sensitivity, dispute resolution mechanisms, assessment of specific community needs and mobilisation of community resources.

 

 

 

Feedback processes through formative assessments

The EUI curriculum will adopt a two-way feedback mechanism between the students and the teachers to ensure continuous evaluation of both which include methods for identifying students who fail to meet the expected objectives.  There will be opportunities for correcting deficiencies in both students and teachers.

 

Improved Mentoring

Curriculum would ensure increased contact time between teachers and students through small-group teachings and practical/clinical sessions thus promoting mentoring.

 

Multidisciplinary team learning approach

Curriculum is designed to be multidisciplinary to ensure that students demonstrate the Multi-Disciplinary Team approach (MDT) to patient care through fostering understanding and mutual respect among members of the team. The team-care approach optimises patient care by involving physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrators, dieticians, health educators and social scientists/workers, among others.

 

Allotment of credits units

The NUC benchmark minimum academic standards (BMAS) allot credits to courses and all courses in the MBBS programme are compulsory.  Credits acquired may be available for transfer at exit points.

ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS

Types of Assessment

Formative assessment: This would be carried out regularly (e.g., at least once every posting), prior to the summative assessment, to give students feedback on their performance and to improve learning.

 

Summative assessment: This is an examination that will determine the students’ progress during the course and will include continuous assessments, end-of-posting and all professional level examinations.

 

Term papers – Students would be required to submit at least one term paper per course as part of the continuous assessment.

Instruments for Assessment

Written examinations

 Objective Questions: These may consist of true/false, Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs), the Single-Best Answer (SBA) and Extended Matching Questions (EMQs).

 

Short Answer Questions (SAQs): These ensure wider content coverage within a shorter space of time compared with long essays. There would, however, be a marking scheme for each question to achieve a more-objective scoring and narrower variability between markers.

 

Long Essays: These questions test in-depth knowledge of specific topics and are essential to ensure a balanced assessment. Similar to SAQs, there would, however, be a marking scheme for each question.

 

Clinical Examinations

Objective Structured Examinations: These may either be “clinical” (OSCE) or “practical” (OSPE) since they are best in ensuring equivalent testing of a group of students.  The viva-voce will be incorporated into the OSCE and OSPE.

 

Picture tests– These are pictures of clinical entities/scenarios, results of investigations/tests, equipment etc. A marking scheme would be provided.

Long case/short case: These would be used for in-course assessment of competences in addition to the OSCE.

 

OPPORTUNITY FOR INTERCALATED DEGREE PROGRAMMES

The EUI curriculum will provide a platform for suitable students to undertake a combined B.Sc./MBBS (Intercalated) degree. This can be a BSc in one of the basic medical sciences.  Students may commence the combined degree programmes at the end of the 300 level. At the completion of the intercalated degree, these students shall return to the MBBS programme at the 400 level.

 

The EUI in future may introduce the MBBS/ Master of Public Health (MPH)/Master of Public Health Administration (MPHA) and MBBS/Ph. D. degree programmes

 

EXAMINATION REGULATIONS

Examinations in EUI will consist of four professional examinations at varying times over the course of the programme. A candidate shall be qualified for these examinations after having satisfied the minimum requirements for each level as prescribed from time to time by the Senate of the University.

 

Part I MBBS Examination

This consists of Anatomy, Biochemistry and Physiology. A candidate shall be qualified for this examination after 18 months of instructions and satisfying the minimum requirements as prescribed by Senate.

A candidate attempting the Part I Examination for the first time shall present himself/herself for examination in all the subjects upon satisfactory completion of the requisite postings.

PASS CRITERIA

  1. To pass the examination, a candidate must score a minimum of 50 percent in anatomy, 50 percent in biochemistry, and 50 percent in physiology.

 

  1. A candidate shall take the Part I Final Examination at the end of the third semester after admission to the course. A candidate who satisfies the examiners in the whole examination shall proceed to the introductory clinical courses.

 

 

CANDIDATES WHO FAIL

  1. A candidate who fails in one subject only may be permitted by Senate, on the recommendation of the Academic Board, to proceed to the introductory clinical courses and to be re- examined (after a minimum remediation period of eight weeks) in the subject in which he/she was referred. Such a candidate shall be required to attend a revision course in the subject in which he/she was referred.
  2. A candidatewho fails in two or three subjects of the Examination will be required to repeat the year.
  • A candidate who is unsuccessful in the resit examination shall be required to repeat the year.
  1. A candidate who is repeating the year and failsin one subject shall be allowed to attempt the subject attheresit examination.
  2. A candidate who is repeating the year and fails in two or three subjects shall withdraw from the programme.
  3. Subject to powers conferred on the Senate to extend the period of study as specified above, candidates who fail to complete the Part I Final Examination within 33 months after admission to the course shall be required to withdraw from the course.

 

Part II MBBS Examination

  1. The Part II Examination shall consist of Pathology (including Medical Microbiology, Chemical Pathology, Haematology and Anatomic Pathology) and Pharmacology. A candidate shall be qualified for this examination having passed the Part I, completed 12 months of instructions in Pathology and Pharmacology and satisfied other minimum requirements.
  2. A candidate attempting the Part II Examination for the first time shall present himself/herself for examination in both subjects upon satisfactory completion of the requisite postings.

 

PASS CRITERIA

To pass the Part II Examination, a candidate must score a minimum of 50 percent in pathology and 50 percent in pharmacology.

REMEDIATION

  1. A candidate who fails in one or both subjects of the examination may proceed with the clinical postings but must submit himself/herself for re-examination in the subject(s) in which he/she failed after a minimum of eight weeks of remediation.
  2. A candidate who fails in any subject in the resist examination shall be deemed to have failed the entire examination and shall be required to repeat the clinical postings and sit the Part II examination the following year.
  • A candidate, who after repeating the year, fails in one or both subjects at the resit examination, shall be asked to withdraw from the programme.
  1. No candidate may proceed to the Part III Examination unless he/she has passed both subjects in the Part II Examination.

 

Part III MBBS Examination

The Part III Examination shall consist of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

A candidate attempting the Part III Examination for the first time shall present himself/herself for examination in both subjects upon satisfactory completion of the requisite postings.

ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION TO EXAMINATION

No candidate shall be admitted to the Part III Examination unless he/she has completed the required postings of study after the Part II Examination.

A candidate must have at least 75% attendance at each of the postings.

PASS CRITERIA

To pass the Part III Examination, a candidate must score a minimum of 50 percent in Paediatrics and 50 percent in Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

A pass in the clinical components is compulsory.

REMEDIATION

  1. A candidate who fails in one or both subjects of the examination may proceed with the clinical postings but must submit himself/herself for re-examination in the subject(s) in which he/she failed after a minimum of twelve weeks of remediation.
  2. A candidate who fails in any subject in the resit examination shall be deemed to have failed the entire examination and shall be required to repeat the clinical postings and sit the Part III examination at the next attempt.
  • A candidate, who after repeating the year, fails in one or both subjects at the resit examination, shall be asked to withdraw from the programme.
  1. No candidate may proceed to the Part IV Examination unless he/she has passed both subjects in the Part III Examination.

 

Part IV MBBS Final Examination

The Part IV Final Examination consists of Medicine, Surgery and Community Medicine.  The examination in Medicine will include Psychiatry and Forensic Pathology.  The examination in Surgery will include Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Ophthalmology and Anaesthesia.

A candidate attempting the Part IV Final Examination for the first time shall present himself/herself for examination in all the subjects upon satisfactory completion of the requisite postings.

ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION TO EXAMINATION

No candidate shall be admitted to the Part IV Final Examination unless he/she has completed the required postings of study after the Part III Examination.

A candidate must have at least 75% attendance at each of the postings.

PASS CRITERIA

To pass the Part IV Examination, a candidate must score a minimum of 50 percent in Medicine, 50 percent in Surgery and 50 percent in Community Medicine.

A pass in the clinical components is compulsory.

REMEDIATION

  1. A candidate who fails in one or more subjects of the examination must submit himself/herself for re-examination in the subject(s) in which he/she failed after a minimum of twelve weeks of remediation.
  2. A candidate who fails in any subject in the resit examination shall be deemed to have failed the entire examination and shall be required to repeat the year.
  • A candidate, who after repeating the year, fails in one or more subjects at the repeat examination the following year shall resitthe examination after 12 weeks remediation.
  1. A candidate who fails in one or more subjects at the resit examination, after repeating the year, shall be asked to withdraw from the programme.

 

EXIT POINTS

Students who wish to transfer to other undergraduate courses maybe permitted to do so using the aggregate credit units they would have acquired. This includes students who fail to pass the examinations after the maximum number of attempts and those wishing to withdraw from the MBBS programme for other reasons.

 

BSc Medical Sciences degree

The BSc Medical Sciences programme is one of the programmes to which students who have to withdraw from the MBBS may transfer to. This degree is usually aimed at students planning careers in health care and health-care-related professions other than medicine.

 

Intercalated BSc Medical Sciences degree

Any academically exceptional student at the Part I Examination, who wishes to acquire a Bachelors degree in any of the three subjects, will be encouraged to spend an additional year to carry out further studies and research.  At the completion of the Bachelors degree, such a student can resume clinical studies at 400 Level.

 

THE AWARD OF THE MBBS DEGREE

  1. A candidate shall be awarded the EUI MBBS degree after satisfying the Board of Examiners with the approval of Senate.
  2. No candidate will graduate unless he/she has passed the General Studies (GES) examinations as applicable.

 

 

 

INTEGRATED BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES

  1. Anatomy
  2. Physiology
  3. Biochemistry

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

Philosophy

To provide the fundamental basis for understanding of the structure of the human body through an integrated multidisciplinary approach.    

 

Objective

Broad objective: To equip medical students with the knowledge of developmental processes and understanding the structure of the human body in health and disease.

 

200 level 1st semester

Specific objectives:

At the end of the posting, the student should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  1. General and gross anatomy through dissection of the human body
  2. Developmental processes in humans

iii.        Microscopic structures of the human body.

 

200 level second semester

Specific objectives:

At the end of the posting, the student should be able to:

  1. Describe and identify the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of various systems of

the body.

  1. Relate the structures of the human body to functions.

 

300 level 1st semester- Clinical application of basic medical sciences

Specific objective:

At the end of the posting, the student should be able to:

 

  1. Apply the knowledge of anatomy to the pathogenesis and principles of management of

health and disease.

 

Revision sessions in anatomy

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

  1. Apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in anatomy as they relate to structures

and function of the human body.

 

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Dissections, Histology and Problem-based questions

     

Measurements of outcomes of rotation

  • MCQs, SAQs, Viva Voce, OSPE

 

 

Course content

1st Semester 200 LEVEL

General Anatomy, Gross anatomy, General Embryology and General microscopic anatomy ANA 201 (6 units)

 

General Anatomy: Definition of anatomy. The Place of Anatomy in Medicine, Methods of the study of Anatomy, Application of Basic Anatomy to Clinical Medicine, Vertebrates and Man, Anatomy of the cell and cellular function, Classification of tissues, Joints, Classification of joints. Bone and Radiological Anatomy. Dentition. Nervous System, Muscles and Glandular Tissues.

Gross Anatomy: Lower limb: Osteology of Lower Limb, front of the thigh I         (femoral triangles, femoral canal and hernia, sub-sartorial canal). Front of thigh II, medial side of the thigh, gluteal region, back of the thigh, popliteal fossa, front of the leg and the dorsum of the foot, lateral side of the leg, back of the leg, sole of the foot (aches of the foot). Hip joint and the knee joint, tibio-fibular joints and ankle joints.

Abdomen, Pelvis and Perineum: Spermatic cord, inguinal canal and hernia, arteries, veins, lymphatic, abdominal alimentary tract, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney. Anatomy of pelvis and perineum (including genital organs), with emphasis on Clinical application.

Microscopic Anatomy: Cell structure and division, epithelial tissues, connective tissues, bone and cartilage, muscular tissue, nervous tissues I and II, peripheral blood, circulatory (blood vascular) system and lymphatic (lymphoid) organs.

General Embryology: The importance of Embryology in Medicine, sub- division of embryology. Origin of germ cells, spermatogenesis and oogenesis, sex determination, events leading of fertilization, oestrus and menstruation, ovarian cycle and ovulation, fertilisation, cleavage and gastrulation. The origin of germ layers, mechanisms of morphogenesis, foetal membranes, classification of the placenta, physiology of the placenta, growth, estimation of embryonic age. Introduction to experimental embryology. Twins and twinning. Teratology.

 

2nd Semester 200 LEVEL

Gross Anatomy, Systemic embryology (including genetics), Systemic microscopic anatomy and Neuroanatomy ANA 202 (6 units)

Gross anatomy: Upper Limb: Osteology of the upper limb, pectoral region and the breast, brachial plexus, scapular region and the axilla, shoulder joint, arm, cubital fossa and elbow. Forearm, wrist joint and hand. Vessels and lymphatic drainage of the upper limb.

Thorax: Osteology of the thoracic cage, intercostal space (intercostal muscles, vessels and nerves), pleura and lungs, mediastinum, cardiac plexus and thoracic diaphragm.

Head and Neck: Osteology of head and neck, scalp, temple and face. Deep cervical fascia, triangles of the neck. Deep structures of the neck. Cranial cavity and venous sinuses. Orbit and the eye. Parotid, temporal, infra-temporal, pterygoid, submandibular region, and temporo-mandibular joint. Oral cavity nasal cavity and paranasal air sinuses. Pharynx and larynx. Ear. Angiology of the neck and lymphatic drainage of head and neck.

Systemic microscopic anatomy: Digestive System I and II, glands of the digestive system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, urinary system, male reproductive system, female reproductive system, endocrine system I and II. Skin (integumentary system), nervous system (CNS and PNS). Eye and ear.

Systemic embryology: Derivatives of the pharyngeal arches, pouches (Development of Tonsil, Thymus, Thyroid, Parathyroid) and cleft. Anomalies of the derivatives. Development of the respiratory system, Development of the stomach, pancreas, liver, gall bladder and bile duct, rotation of the stomach and the formation of the lesser sac, Development of the intestine, rotation, withdrawal and fixation of the gut, The peritoneum, its reflections and the bare areas of viscera. Development of the urinary bladder and rectum. Development of the spleen.  Haemopoetic system. Development of the kidneys. Development of the gonads, uterus and prostate. Development of the external genitalia, descent of the testes, Anomalies of the urogenital system. Development of the vertebral column and skull. Development of the cardiovascular system, foetal circulation and circulatory changes at birth. Development of the musculoskeletal system, integuments-skins, hair mammary gland and teeth. Development of the head and neck.  Development of the central nervous system. Mechanism of Development of the Nervous system. Development of the special senses- eye, ear, nose, and tongue.

Genetics: Mechanism of inheritance: Mendel’s laws. Significance of oogenesis and spermatogenesis in man. Sex linkage. Effects of radiation and In- breeding in man.  Genes in development and differentiation; causes of abnormal developments; Sex ratio, twinning, congenital malformations. Nature of genes. Genetic control of inherited diseases; genetic counseling.

Neuroanatomy: Methods of study of neuroanatomy. Neurulation: brain vesicles, neurohistogenesis. Phylogeny of the nervous System in vertebrates. Coverings of the CNS. The neuron, axon and its sheaths.  Sensory receptors. Blood supply of the spinal cord. Development of the spinal cord. Internal Organization of the spinal cord, (a) ascending pathways, descending pathways, functional components Cranial Nerves. Applied anatomy. Development of brain stem and cerebellum. Cross sectional anatomy of the medulla, pons and midbrain. Cerebellum in posture and balance. Brainstem: cranial nerve nuclei, long tracts and connections, applied anatomy. Development of the Ear, auditory system and vestibular system, physiology of hearing. Cerebellum: gross features, cortex, white matter, circuitry, connections and functional consideration. Thalamus: connections, sensory and motor functions. Hypothalamic connection and functions. Basal ganglia: connections and functions. Cerebrum: gross features, Microanatomy, functional area and development. Development of the eye and visual System, physiology of vision. Limbic system and control of posture and movement.

 


DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY

Departmental Philosophy

To provide the fundamental basis for medical biochemistry and molecular biology for medical education and basic research methodologies.

 

Objective

Broad objective: To equip medical students with the knowledge of developmental processes and understanding the structure of the human body in health and disease.

Broad Objective– Integrated Core Basic Medical Sciences Postings

To equip medical students with sufficient knowledge of medicalbiochemistry and molecular biology to understand the processes of health and disease

 

1stSemester200LIntegrated Core Basic Medical Sciences I

Specific objectives:

At the end of the semester, the student should be able to demonstrate knowledge and practical understanding of:

  1. Basic biochemical processes in humans.
  2. Metabolism of macromolecules, blood, immunoglobulins, hormones and overview of disorders associated with distorted metabolism.

Biochemical importance of lipoproteins

 

2ndSemester200L – Integrated Core Basic Medical Sciences II

Specific Objectives

At the end of the semester, the student should be able to:

  1. Build on previous knowledge of normal biochemical processes.
  2. Acquire adequate knowledge of the biochemical basis of human diseases.

 

1st Semester300L– Clinical Application of Basic Medical Sciences and Revision of Core Basic Medical Sciences

 

Broad Objective

Produce medical graduates who are able to apply the knowledge ofbiochemistry to the pathogenesis and principles of management of clinicalentities.

Specific Objectives

At the end of the semester, the student should be:

  1. Proficient in the application of the knowledge of biochemical processesto the understanding of disease states in clinical practice.
  2. Show knowledge and skills of core basic medical sciences.

iii.        Show a good understanding of biochemistry prior toproceeding to clinical school.

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Practical, and personal studies   

Measurements of outcomes:

  • MCQs, SAQs, and long essays

 


Course Content:

Introduction to Biochemistry BIC 201 (6 units)

Structure, Chemistry and Functions of living cell. pH and Buffers.

Metabolism of proteins I:

Chemistry ad structure of the amino acids, essential and non–essential amino acids. Peptides, Proteins classification, structure and functions. Introduction to the metabolism of amino acids; transamination, oxidative deamination, decarboxylation, etc. The Urea cycle and its Biochemical importance. Metabolism of leucine, isoleucine and valine (The branched – chain amino acids). Structure and functions of biological membranes, membrane transport and disease.

Metabolism of Proteins II

Metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Metabolism and interconversion of threonine. Metabolism of the sulphur–containing amino acids; methionine, cysteineand cysteine inborn error. Metabolism of some amino acid: phenylketonuria, tyrosinosis, alkaptonuria, albinism, and cystinuria. Blood, Porphyrins, Haemoglobinopathies I: Blood, General properties and functions; the red cell and its metabolism. Blood, plasma, the plasma proteins; separation and functions, blood clotting mechanisms. The haemoglobin: Its structure, properties and biochemical functions. Blood, Porphyrins and Haemoglobinopathies II: Metabolism of porphyrins and porphyrinurias. Formation of bile pigments, jaundice. Haemoglobinopathies, thalassemia, haemophilia.

Metabolism of carbohydrates I: Classification and chemistry of carbohydrates, Chemistry and Biochemistry of the polysaccharides including the amino sugars, mucopolysaccharides, blood group substances, etc. Metabolism of Carbohydrates I

Metabolism of Carbohydrates; glycolysis (Embden–Meyerhof pathway), aerobic and anaerobic phases. Control mechanisms and substrate – level phosphorylation. The Kreb’s cycle/Citric acid cycle. Metabolism of galactose and fructose; the uronic acid pathway.Immunoglobulins: Types, structure, functions. Estimation of immunoglobulins; antigens and antigenic determinants, Immunotherapy. Hybridoma technology and monoclonal antibodies in Medicine and Biological research. Metabolism of Carbohydrates II: Definition and inter – relationships of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis and glycogenolysis. The Hexose Monophosphate Shunt and its Biochemical importance; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Metabolism of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates II: Diseases of the carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolism of the amino sugars

The Biochemical functions of hormones and clinical features of abnormalities

Characteristics of hormones. Molecular mechanism of hormone action. The parathyroid hormones: Chemistry, functions, and regulation of secretion, abnormalities

The pancreatic hormones: Insulin Chemistry, secretion, metabolism, function, assay; diabetes. Glucagon Chemistry and function Hormones of the adrenal cortex; glucocorticoids and the mineralocorticoids, biosynthesis regulation of biosynthesis and metabolic functions Hormones of the adrenal cortex, adrenocortical insufficiency; Addison’s disease; hyperaldosteronism. The biochemical functions of the gastrointestinal hormones; gastrin, etc. Gastrointestinal hormones. Assay of hormones. Techniques – Biological, Chemical and Radio–displacement assays. Hormones of the testis, the ovary and the placenta, testosterone, the androgens, oestrogens, progesterone, Hormones of the testis, the ovary and the placenta. Metabolism of nucleic acids I: Chemistry and structure of the nucleic acids: RNA and DNAPurine nucleosides and nucleotides

Pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides. Roles of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in intermediary metabolism. Synthesis and catabolism of purine nucleotidesSynthesis and catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides Metabolism of nucleic acids II: Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Lipids I: Introduction to lipids; classification, chemistry and functions of lipids, digestion and adsorption of lipids. Formation of chylomicrons; transport of lipids in the blood; the lipoproteins, biochemical importance of lipoproteins

 

2nd semester 200 Level (6 Units)

Translocation and gene rearrangement in disease state. Gene rearrangement in Burkitt’s lymphoma and other diseases. Biochemical functions of nervous systems. Neurotransmitters: Biosynthesis and breakdown Diseases affecting the nervous tissues. Retroviruses, cancer, AIDS ad other diseases. Retroviruses: Molecular structure and involvement in cancer. Retroviruses, AIDS: Biochemistry of the virus, spread, detection, drug treatments and others. AIDS Drug resistance. Biochemical functions of the kidney: Renal function tests (RFTs) etc. Biochemical functions of the kidney. Biochemical functions of the liver: Liver functions, tests, jaundice, hepatitis Biochemical functions of the liver. Cancer: Proto–oncogenes and oncogenes. Biochemical features of Tropical Diseases. Biochemistry of the prostaglandins. Bioenergetics Electron transport and chain and oxidative phosphorylation in the generation of ATP Bioenergetics: Theories and models proposed for ATP generation, inhibitors of ETC, etc. Muscle action: Biochemical concept. Muscle action: Molecular concept, control. Metabolism of lipids II: Biosynthesis of fatty acids and of the triacylglycerol; mechanism involved. Metabolism of cholesterol: Biosynthesis, degradation into bile acids and bile salts.

Biosynthesis and degradation of triacylglycerol, phospholipids and sphingolipids. β–oxidation of fatty acids and the control mechanisms. Ketone bodies and ketosis. The biochemical functions of vitamins. The water–soluble vitamins: The B–group and Vitamin C. Biochemical importance of water–soluble vitamins in the body. The fat–soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and their biochemical functions Coenzymes: Structure and role in cellular metabolism. Nature and properties of enzymes. Introduction of enzymes: Enzyme classification. Catalysis and Kinetics of enzyme action. Factors affecting enzyme activity, allosteric effects, etc. Clinical importance of enzymes, Enzyme inhibition, Enzyme assay in clinical medicine; Immobilized enzymes. Introduction to human nutrition II: Water and the major ions: H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, HCO3, Fluid intake and output: Total body water distribution; intercellular, intracellular and extracellular fluids. Regulation of water balance in the body. Functions of electrolytes; dehydration and its correction, Ageing, Ageing and signalling pathways, Ageing and apoptosis, Concept of metabolic processes and oxidative stress in ageing

Introduction to Xenobiochemistry Phases 1 and 2 reactions Cytochrome P450 and drug oxidationMechanism of drug toxicity.

 

1st Semester 300 Level.

Clinical Application of Basic Medical Sciences and Revision of Core Basic Medical Sciences prior to the MBBS Part I Examination.

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to apply, analyse and evaluate knowledge and skills of Biochemistry as they relate to normal biochemical processes in health and disease of the human body.

 

 


DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY

Philosophy

To provide fundamental knowledge in basic physiology for adequate orientation towards the application of basic physiology to clinical practice and research.

Objective

Broad objective: To equip medical students with knowledge of physiological processes of the human body in health and management of clinical entities.

 

1stSemester200L: Integrated Core Basic Medical Sciences I

Specific Objectives

  • At the end of this semester, the student should demonstrate:
  1. Theoretical and practical knowledge of basic physiological functions.
  2. The understanding of physiological mechanisms in various human systems.

 

2ndSemester200L– Integrated Core Basic Medical Sciences II

Specific Objectives

At the end of the semester, the student should be able to:

  1. Strengthen previous knowledge of basic physiological functions and mechanisms

in various systems.

  1. Demonstrate adequate knowledge of derangement of physiological mechanisms that result in human diseases.

 

1stSemester300L – Clinical Application of Basic Medical Sciences and Revision

Specific Objectives

At the end of the semester, the student should be:

  1. Show knowledge and skills of core basic medical sciences.
  2. Proficient in the application of the knowledge of physiological processes to the understanding of disease states in clinical practice.

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Practical, and self directed learning.      

Measurements of outcomes:

  • MCQs, SAQs,long essays and viva voce.

 

Course Contents

Physiology PHS 201 (6 Credit units)

General Principles Introduction and History of Physiology. Structure and function of cell membranes with emphasis on transport across cell membrane. Biophysical principles. Osmosis, diffusion, active transport. Homeostasis and control systems. Blood and Body Fluids: Fluids of blood cellular components, blood groups, haemoglobin and haemopoiesis. Body fluids and electrolytes: their measurement and regulation.

Cardiovascular and Respiratory: Organisation and Structure of aorta and large arteries and arterioles – as resistance vessels, capillaries as sites of tissue fluid exchange. Heart – properties and function of cardiac muscle. Regulation of heart rate and cardiac output. Baroreceptors and control of arterial blood pressure. Regional circulation: heart, brain, haemorrhage, exercises, posture, altitude. The respiratory tracts: structure and function. Pulmonary gas exchange, mechanics of respiration, compliance, surfactant, lung volumes and capacities, uptake and delivery of respiratory gases with reference to 02 and C02 transport. Pulmonary function tests. Response to hypoxia, high altitude, exercises. Artificial respiration, chemical and neural control of respiration.

Gastro-Intestinal and Renal Physiology and Metabolism: Gastrointestinal tract, innervation and visceral sensations of the Gut, mobility and secretions, gastrointestinal hormones, pancreatic and biliary secretions, its adaptability to absorption of carbohydrates, protein, nucleic acids, fat, water, mineral etc. liver function tests. The Nephron, Urine formation Urinalysis, Urinary Concentration, ADH and Osmolality, Acids/Base Balance, Micturition, Endocrine function of the kidney

 

Physiology PHS 202 (6 credit Units)

Nutrition and Nutritional Metabolism: Principles of nutrition, vitamins and minerals, energy metabolism and metabolic rate, calorie deficiency states.

Endocrine and Reproduction PHS: Physiology of the male and female reproductive systems; puberty; menstrual cycle including ovulation; menopause; andropause and other endocrine organs. Physiology of coitus, pregnancy, human reproduction, lactation and contraception. Physiology of the pancreas, adrenal glands, pituitary, thyroid glands.

Nerves, Muscles and CNS: Sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways, role in the various systems – especially cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal. Excitable tissue and Nervous System; Structure and classification of muscles, excitation and contraction. Theories and principles involved in muscle contraction, resting membrane and action potentials, generation of impulse in excitable tissues, nerve and neuromuscular transmission. Simple reflex and spinal reflexes. Spinal cord – ascending, descending pathways receptors. Thalamus – sensory and motor cortex. Control of posture and movement. The reticular activating system, sleep, neural centers regulating visceral functions. Neurophysiological basis of instinctive behaviour, conditioned reflexes, learning, temperature regulation.

Special Senses: Method of studying, Physiology of special organs and senses.

 

 

 

PLEASE INSERT THE FLOW CHART (ATTACHMENT)

 

SECTION 3

INTEGRATED BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES

  1. Chemical Pathology
  2. Histopathology
  3. Haematology
  4. Medical Microbiology
  5. Pharmacology and Therapeutics

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY

Philosophy

The posting is designed to highlight the central roles of biochemical and metabolic processes of the human body, in the aetiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of disease states.

Broad Objective

To equip students with the understanding of the biochemical processes to guide appropriate test ordering and interpretation of laboratory results for optimal clinical practice.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting the student should be able to:

  1. Describe and evaluate the roles of abnormalities of biochemical and metabolic functions of theorgan systems in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of clinical disorders.
  2. Demonstrate relevant skills in diagnostic techniques for identification of biochemical and metabolic disorders.
  • Interpret biochemical laboratory results in health and disease states.

 

Posting Description

1stSemester 300L: 1st Posting Integrated Block Posting I

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  1. Describe the pathogenesis of the common disease conditions affecting organ systems.
  2. Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the rationale for the selection of tests in the investigation of disease conditions.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the main causes of the non-pathological variation in measured biochemical values.
  • Interpret the biochemical tests for the management of diseases.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles of bio-safety in the clinical chemistry laboratory.

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Practicals.

Measurements of outcomes of rotation

  • MCQs, SAQs, OSPE, Viva Voce.

 

Course Contents

CPY 301 Chemical Pathology          4 Units

Requests for laboratory investigations, collection and preservation of specimen for investigations; Reference values; Traditional and S.I. Units; Homeostasis in Clinical Chemistry; Acid-base balance; Definition and causes of hypernatraemia and hyponatraemia; Definitions and causes of Hyperkalaemia and Hypokalaemia.  Investigations of water and electrolyte imbalance, Calcium and Phosphate disorders: parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and cholecalciferol.  Definition and causes of hyper and hypocalcaemia.  Definition and causes of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis.  Blood glucose homeostasis: glucose tolerance tests – performance and interpretation; diabetes mellitus; Formation of free fatty acids, ketone bodies and lactate; Plasma lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and non-esterified fatty acids. Plasma lipoproteins and causes of hyper and hypolipoproteinaemia.  Concept of risk factors for diseases and significance in prevention; Plasma proteins – reference values, separation of fractions and variations in health and disease.  Paraproteinaemias; Bence-Jones proteinuria and significance; Plasma enzymes – Transaminases, alkaline and acid phosphatases, creatine kinase, lactic dehydrogenases and their uses in diagnosis and management of diseases; Definition, causes and consequences of some common inborn errors of metabolism; Galactosaemia, lactose intolerance, Albinism, aminoacidurias, phenylketonuria. Tests of kidney function: urinalysis, measurement of glomerular filtration rate; definitions, causes and consequences of azotaemia, uraemia. Tests of hepatic function; jaundice: hepatocellular, haemolytic and obstructive. Functions of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary.  Thyroid functions and investigation of thyroid disorders.  Assessment of gonadal function in men and women. Diagnosis of pregnancy, assessment of foetal and placental integrity. Biochemical diagnosis of cancer. Tests of gastrointestinal functions.

 

2ndSemester 300L2nd Posting – Integrated Block Posting II

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  1. Strengthen previous knowledge and skills of biochemical investigations with emphasis on more specialised tests.
  2. Select more specialised tests in chemical pathology.
  • Interpret the results of the more specialised tests in chemical pathology.
  1. Operate the common point-of-care-test devices.

 

COURSE CONTENTS

CPY 302         Chemical Pathology II (4 Units)

Demonstrations: Specimen collection – different types of samples, tubes, sample identification, separation of plasma or serum, collection and preservation of urine specimens. Determination of blood gases and blood PH. Determination of glucose: Glucose estimation in blood by the glucose oxidase method (a specific method), Glucose estimation in the same blood by the ferricyanide reduction method (a non-specific method) and strip test for glucose in blood (semiquantitative method). Plotting of oral glucose tolerance test curves for a normal patient and a diabetic patient.  Urinalysis:  determination of urine specific gravity osmolality and qualitative tests for protein, glucose and reducing substances, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen and blood.  Haemoglobin and haemoglobin derivatives in urine. Occult blood in faeces.  Spectroscopy of haemoglobin and its derivatives in blood.  Non-invasive methods of monitoring hyperbilirubinaemia such as cutaneous bilirubinometry.  Estimation of blood gases, including use of pulse oximeter. Different methods of protein estimation; Electrophoresis of plasma proteins, haemoglobins and Isoenzymes. Demonstration: Column chromatography, Paper and thin layer chromatography of sugars and amino acids in urine. Demonstration:  Determination of serum enzymes; Radioimmunoassay of hormones in blood; Estimation of 17 – oxosteroid in urine, biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); Methods of vitamin analysis in blood, estimation of immunoglobulins, Agglutination/Agglutination inhibition tests; Immuno-electrophoresis and gel Immuno-diffusion technique.  Rosette tests forcellular immunity appraisal and exercise: interpretation of laboratory results.

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY

Philosophy

The posting is designed for students to acquire sufficient knowledge of morbid anatomy, pathogenesis of disease processes, basic pathologic processes and mechanisms of diseases. 

Objectives

Broad Objectives

To equip students with the understanding of pathologic processes and pathological techniques in the investigation of disease processes.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting the student should be able to:

  • Demonstrate sufficient understanding of general and system pathology and application of same for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of diseases
  • Apply knowledge of pathology to clinical entities.
  • Demonstrate proficiency in the use of histopathological techniques in the diagnosis of disease processes.
  • Identify and analyse common medico-legal problems in medical practice.

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Practicals, self directed learning.

Measurements of outcomes of rotation

  • MCQs, SAQs, OSPE, Viva Voce.

 

Course contents

PAT 501 General Pathology           

Introduction – Ancient, traditional and modern concepts of diseases and their causes.  The normal cell and cellular basis of disease. Tissues and Cellular Injury.  Reaction to Cellular injury – inflammation.  Healing and Repair. Disturbances of cell growth – cellular adaptation and Neoplasia. Cytogenetics and Genetic Disorders. Pigmentary Disturbances. Calcification and Amyloidosis. Disorders of Nutrition.

 

PAT 502 System Pathology                                                                         

In this part of the course the principles of general pathology shall be applied to individual organs.  Emphasis shall be on those diseases commonly encountered or peculiar to the environment.  Thus in addition to global disease adequately covered in all standard text-books of pathology, the following should be specially emphasized:

Cardiovascular System: Hypertensive heart disease and heart failure, Cardiomyopathies – Congestive, Restrictive including EMF, hypertrophic. Respiratory: Pneumonias, effusions, cancers of the lungs, obstructive airway diseases, Tuberculosis. Renal: Nephropathy associated with malaria and other infestations and infections. Lympho-reticular:Malignant Lymphomas (Non-Hodgkin’s and Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Burkitt’s) Idiopathic Tropical Splenomegaly Syndrome (ITSS). Gastrointestinal Tract: Cancers of the mouth, oesophagus and stomach, intestinal lymphomas.     Liver: Hepatitis – Hepatitis viruses, yellow fever, Lassa fever, cirrhosis, primary liver cell carcinoma.            Nervous System: Infections – Meningitis, trypanosomiasis. Female Reproductive Tract: Pelvic inflammatory disease.  Cancer – Cervical, trophoblastic, ovarian. Ophthalmic: Inflammatory disease – pyogenic, trachoma, onchocerciasis: Nutritional: Protein – Calorie malnutrition: Skin: Inflammatory – Leprosy. Tumours – Kaposi Sarcoma. Bones: Tumours of the Jaw.

 

PAT 503         Histopathology                                                          

Practicals in Histopathology and Morbid Anatomy Attendance at post mortem sessions shall be compulsory.  Each student shall attend a minimum of twenty autopsies, assist in five and write up five.  At the end of the post-mortem clerking, each student should know how a coroner’s autopsy differs from the routine hospital autopsy.  Practicals in histopathology shall be organized to illustrate the application of theoretical knowledge to histopathological diagnosis.  At the end of the course the student shall be able to recognize tissue changes that denote acute and chronic inflammation, granulomatous inflammation, benign and malignant tumours.  Exercises in experimental pathology should ideally form part of the practicals in histopathology.

 

PAT 504         Forensic Medicine                                                                

Introduction to Forensic Medicine – history, definition. Medico-legal system – Medical examination/Coroner.  Nigeria Medical Council. Medical Defence Unions. Legal issues relevant to reproductive health. Sexual offences – Rape, Defilement (below 16years),incest; abortion and miscarriage. The doctor’s duty at the scene of death – natural, un-natural. Signs of death, estimation of the time of death. Identification. The medico-legal aspects of blood. Sudden and unexpected death. Circumstances and treatment of poisoning including investigations of death due to poisoning.  Some local poisons. Wounds – bruises, abrasions, lacerations, incisions, cut-throat and stab wounds. Injuries in road traffic accidents. Firearms and firearm wounds. Asphyxia – crash asphyxia, hanging, strangulations, suffocation. Drowning, Burns, Electrocution, Deaths from Lightning. Consent, professional secrecy, medical negligence. Writing a medico-legal report; the doctor in court; the Coroner and his duties. Alcohol abuse.

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF HAEMATOLOGY

Departmental Philosophy

The posting is designed for students to acquire sufficient knowledge of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs in the context of laboratory and clinical practice.

Objectives

Broad Objectives

To equip students with the understanding of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs including serology, techniques in the investigation of disease processes and the application to disease management.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting the student should be able to:

  • Describe the pathology, clinical findings and management of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs.
  • Perform basic laboratory procedures such as haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, white cell and platelet counts, blood film examination and ESR.
  • Identify normal and abnormal results
  • Apply the knowledge to the management of clinical conditions.

 

Posting Description

1stSemester 300L:1stPostingIntegrated Block Posting I

Specific Objectives

At the end of the posting, students should be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the processes of formation and pathophysiology of the cellular components of blood in health and diseases.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the basic pathophysiology of serology and coagulation disorders.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of normal reference and abnormal haematological values.
  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the pathology, clinical manifestation and management of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs.
  • Demonstrate skills in basic microscopic examination of the blood.
  • Describe and interpret haematological reports and be able to apply these to the investigation of common haematological conditions.
  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge and skills in safe blood transfusion.

Learning Methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, and Practical demonstrations

Assessment Methods

  • MCQs, SBAs, OSPE and viva voce

 

HEM 501: Haematology and Blood Transfusion  (2 Units)

Development of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets; Normal structure and function of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets; Disorders of structure, maturation and function of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets; Red cell antigens and serum antibodies as they concerns blood grouping and cross matching; Physiology of haemostasis and manifestations of failure of haemostasis.

 

2ndSemester 300L:2nd Posting –Integrated Block Posting II

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  • Strengthen the knowledge and skills of haematological concepts.
  • Prevent and investigate transfusion reactions.
  • Demonstrate further knowledge of the processes of formation and pathophysiology of the cellular components of blood in health and disease.

 

HEM 502: Haematology and Blood Transfusion 

Biology of blood cells (including development and physiology of haematopoietic cell). Genetic control: heamoglobin synthesis and abnormal heamoglobin structure and function. Clinical syndromes associated with abnormal haemoglobins. Genetic counselling. Ante-natal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies. Anaemias: Definitions and classification. Clinical aspects of anaemia: Diagnosis of anaemias: Anaemias of infection, deficiency anaemia, haemolytic anaemia and anaemia associated with systemic diseases. Leukaemias: Definition and classification.

Acute and chronic leukaemias: diagnosis and management. Definition, presentation, diagnosis and management of haematological solid tumours: Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Burkitt’s Lymphoma. Monoclonal Gammopathies: Myelomatosis, Waldestrom’s disease. Platelets: Inherited and acquired disorders including purpura. Coagulation disorders: thrombosis, coagulopathies. Management of bleeding disorders and anticoagulant therapy. Blood Groups: Red cell antigens and antibodies. Indications for blood transfusion and management of blood transfusion reactions. Rhesus in compatibility, haemolytic disease of newborn. Blood transfusion and HIV/AIDS.

Practical haematology: Principles of haemoglobin and haematocrit estimation. Blood films and staining, WBC and Platelet counts. Films of haemolytic, iron-deficiency and folate-deficiency anaemias. ESR estimation. Tests for Thrombin time, PT/PTTK, estimation of fibrin degradation products.  Haemoglobin electrophoresis and sickling test.

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, PARASITOLOGY AND VIROLOGY

Philosophy

The posting is designed for students to acquire sufficient knowledge of the basic concepts of laboratory medicine and infectious disease pathology in the context of laboratory and clinical practice.

Objective

Broad Objective

To equip students with the basic knowledge of infectious agents, mode of infection acquisition and prevention and themicrobiological, parasitological and virological techniques for the investigation and management of disease.

Specific objectives:

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  • Describe the basic morphology and characteristics of infectious agents.
  • Define the normal body flora and roles in health and disease.
  • Describe the routes of transmission of various pathogenic organisms.
  • Describe the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation of infections.
  • Investigate infections, identify and differentiate various organisms of medical importance.
  • Describe the different level of interaction between the host, environment and pathogens.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the collection, transport and processing of clinical specimens.
  • Demonstrate the theoretical and practical knowledge of controlling infections in the hospital and community.
  • Demonstrate practical skills in the identification and classification of organisms.

 

 

Course contents

MIC 201: Bacteriology

Infectious diseases: nature and classification of bacteria of medical importance. Mechanisms of pathogen city and virulence. Microbial metabolism and multiplication. Exotoxin-producing bacteria. The process of sterilisation and disinfection. The normal body flora in humans. Description and identification of the following organisms: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp.,  Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. Mycobacterium spp. Brucella spp. Corynebacterium spp. Clostridium spp., Bacteroides spp., Haemophillus and Bordetella spp., Listeria, Yersinia spp., Vibrios, Campylobacterium spp., Enterobacteriacae, Ancinetobacterium spp. Pseudomonas spp., Actinomyces and Nocardia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia spp., Spirochetes.

Practical Bacteriology: Demonstrate knowledge and practise basic safety procedures in the microbiology laboratory. Demonstrate ability to use the light microscope. Demonstrate ability to prepare and stain specimens with Grams stain, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Giemsa stain.  Demonstrate negative staining reaction and spore staining reaction. Demonstrate ability to prepare wet mounts to show pus cells, shape of bacteria motility. Demonstrate ability to inoculate agar plates with different specimen. Describe colonial appearances of bacteria on an agar plate. Demonstrate ability to count bacteria in water, milk, food, urine and clothing. Demonstrate bacterial flora of the skin, mouth, hair, teeth, gingival crevices. Perform and interpret sensitivity test.  Demonstrate ability to perform sterilising efficiency test for ‘Dettol’ (Chlorohexyphenol), boiler and autoclaves, ‘Savlon’ (Cetrimide) and hibitane (Chlorohexidine). Demonstrate ability to perform slide agglutination tests for staphylococci, Salmonella spp. and E. Coli.

 

MIC 202:Virology

The development and cultivation of medically important viruses. Basic properties and classification of viruses. Systemic defences against viruses. Description and identification of the following viruses: influenza virus, polio viruses, chicken pox small pox virus, measles virus, yellow fever virus, lassa fever virus, rubella virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, herpes zoster virus, hepatitis viruses, mumps virus and Epstein-Barr virus. Description and identification of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) virus. Pathogenesis, clinical picture, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and control of HIV infection.

Practical Virology: Students will be expected to: recognise and interpret the following serological test for the identification of viruses: Complement fixation test (CFT), Neutralisation test (NT) and Haemagglutination test (HAT);identify pock forming viruses; demonstrate ability to recognise the effects of virus in experimental animals.

 

MIC 203:Mycology

Development of medical mycology, nature and classification of medically important fungi. Description and identification of the following fungi: Microsporium spp. epidemophyton spp. Trichophyton spp. Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma spp. Practical Mycology: Students will be expected to demonstrate ability to perform skin scrapings for the diagnosis of superficial dermatomycoses, identifydifferent morphological types of fungi under the microscope. Identify colonial morphology of the fungi on saboraudsagar.

 

MIC 204:Medical Parasitology

Different types of parasites: classification, structure properties and life cycle,including the identification of various stages of the following protozoa: Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoebahistolytica. Opportunistic pathogenic amoebae, non-pathogenic amoebae, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas spp., Balantidium coli, Trypanosoma spp., Leishmania spp.,Sarcoptesscabei.

Practical Parasitology: Students will be expected to demonstrate the ability to perform thin and thick blood films; ability to perform staining with Giemsa, Wright’s, Field’s and Leishman’s Stains. Demonstrate ability to recognize Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in stained smear. Demonstrate the ability to prepare wet ‘mounts’ and identify Trophozoites, Cysts, Giardia, Trichomonas, Entamoeba coli.

 

MIC 205: Medical Helminthology

Development of medical helminthology, classification of Helminths, general properties of Helminths. Description and identification of the following Helminths: Schistosoma spp. (masoni, haematobium and japonicum), Paragonimusspp, Fasciolopsis spp., Taenia spp. (saginata and solium), Echinococcusgranulosus, Ascarislumbricoides, Strongyloidesstercoralis, Ancylostomaduodenale, Necatoramericanus, Enterobiusvermicularis, Trichuristrichura, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereriabancrofti, Loaloa, Brugiamalayi, Dracunculusmedinensis, Acanthocheilonema spp., Trichinellaspiralis. Practical Helminthology: Students will be expected to demonstrate the ability to prepare wet mounts from stool with saline and iodine. Demonstrate ability to prepare thin and thick films for the identifications of microfilaria. Demonstrate ability to prepare wet mounts for urine. Demonstrate ability to recognize helminths from tissue biopsy.

 

MIC 206: Medical Entomology

Insects of interest in tropical diseases. Exodermic and Endodermic.

 

MIC 207: Applied Medical Microbiology

Central Nervous system: Causative agents and laboratory diagnosis of meningitis; aetiology of encephalitis, pathophysiology of tetanus. Respiratory Tract: aetiological agents of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Gastrointestinal Tract: aetiological agents of gastroenteritis and food poisoning. Cardiovascular system: aetiological agents of infective endocarditis and Rheumatic Carditis. Urinary system:aetiological agents of urinary tract infections. The role of blood culture in diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin (P.U.O.). Skin: aetiological agents of superficial dermatomycoses and Pyoderma cellulitis and myasis. Musculoskeletal system: aetiological agents of osteomyelitis, deep mycosis, abscesses, wound infections and pyomyositis.Aetiological agents of eye and ear infections. Aetiological agents and transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI’s); management and control of STI’s. Transmission and control of hospital infections.General principles of antibiotic chemotherapy; modes of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Vaccines, prophylactic immunisation. Universal infection prevention measures.

 

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS

Philosophy

To produce medical graduates who have adequate knowledge of basic pharmacology and are able to apply the knowledge of this basic medical science to clinical practice.

Objectives

Broad Objective

  • Introduce student to the knowledge and skills of basic pharmacology.
  • Strengthen previous knowledge of pharmaco-dynamic and pharmacokinetics.
  • Revise in a systematic manner the contents of the pharmacology curriculum.
  • Produce medical graduates who are able to apply their knowledge of basic pharmacology to the principles of management of clinical conditions.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the history, sources, constitution and uses of medications.
  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the mechanism of drug action and the process of drug disposal by humans.
  • Classify medicines for common disease conditions.
  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the rationale for the use of specific medications for common disease conditions.
  • Apply the rational use of medicines.
  • Understand the principles and detection of adverse effects from drugs.
  • Demonstrate a clear understanding of the key elements of the pharmacology curriculum.

MODE OF DELIVERY

Combinations of the following teaching methods:

  • Lectures, Tutorials Practicals and Clinical teaching

ASSESSMENT METHODS

MCQs, SAQs,OSPE.

 

Course Content

PHA 501: General Pharmacology

Scope of Pharmacology: Origin and Sources of Drugs; Routes of Administration of Drugs; Pharmacokinetics; Absorption of Drugs; Excretion of Drugs; Biotransformation of Drugs; Structure Activity Relationship; Mode of Action of Drugs; Types of Drug Action.  Drug Action in Man-compliance, Individual Variations; Presence of other drugs; Genetic Effects; Tolerance and Tachyphylaxis; Effects of Diseases; Drug Toxicity, Adverse drug Reactions; Drug Dependence; Drug Interaction.

 

PHA 502: Systemic Pharmacology

Neurohumoral Transmission: Drugs on Neuroeffector Sites: Autopharmacoids. Review of Neurohumoral Transmission; Transmitters in the Central and Peripheral Nervous system; Cholinergic and Adrenergic Receptors; Cholinergic Stimulants and Blocking agents; Adrenergic Stimulants and Blocking agents; Autocoids – Histamine Receptors and Histamine Antagonists; 5-hydroxytryptamine; Renin – Angiotensin; Kinins; Plasma Kinin, Bradykinin-kallikrein; Substance P; Prostaglandins; Leukotrienes; Cyclic Nucleotides and other mediators.  Drugs Acting on the Alimentary: Vomiting – Antiemetics; Constipation – Purgatives; Antacids – Anticholinergics – H2 Receptor Antagonists – Ulcer Healing Drugs; Gastrointestinal Hormones – Pentagastrin – Secretin; Non-specific Antidiarrhoeal Drugs; Lactulose; Lipid Disorders – Cholestyramine; Pancreatin; Cholecystokinin. Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System: Oxygen therapy, Bronchodilator drugs; Asthma, Status Asthmaticus; Cough Suppressants; Mucolytic Agents; Respiratory Stimulants.  Drugs Acting on Blood and Blood-Forming Organs: Anaemias; Iron Deficiency and other Hypochromic Anaemias; Megaloblastic Anaemias; Iron-Cobalamins – Folates; Anticoagulants, Heparin, Coumarin, Indandiones; Fibrinolysis – Fibrinolysin; Thrombus; Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; Blood Lipid Lowering Drugs  Drugs Acting on the Cardiovascular System: Heart Failure and its Drug Management; Anti-anginal Drugs; Ischaemic heart disease and its Drug Management; Antiarrhythmic Drugs, Hypertension and its Drug Management; Vasodilators Drugs Acting on the Urinary System: Diuretics; Alteration of Urinary PH; Urinary Tract Infections; Renal Failure; Immunity; Immuno – Suppressive Agents.

 

PHA 503: Antimicrobial, Antifungal Antiviral and Protozoal Diseases Drugs & Drugs against Human Systems

Microbes in Man; Mode of action of Antimicrobial Drugs; Sulphonamides; Penicillins; Cephalosporins; Aminoglycoside; Lincomycins; Peptide Antibiotics; Drugs Treatment of Tuberculosis; Miscellaneous Antibiotics; Vancomycin; Spectinomycin; Fusidic Acid; other Synthetic; Antimicrobial Drugs; Nalidixic Acid; Nitrofurantoin; Drug Treatment of Leprosy; Antifungal Agents; Fluorinated Pyrimidines; Imidazoles; Miscellaneous Antifungal Agents; Antiviral Agents; Methisazone; Idoxuridine; Cytarabine; Adenine Arabinoside, Interferons; Humoral Immunoglobulin.  Malaria; Trypanosomiasis; Leishmaniasis; Amoebiasis; Amoebic Liver Abscess; Giardiasis; Trichomoniasis; Ankylostomiasis; Ascariasis; Trichiasis; Strongyloidiasis; Enterobiasis; Trichinosis; Filariasis; Loasis; Onchocerciasis; Dracontiasis; Schistosomiasis; Fasciolopsiasis; Clonorchiasis; Paragonimiasis; Taeniasis; Cysticercosis; Hydatid Disease; Dyphyllothriasis; Tape Worm.Anti-retroviral Therapy: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTI) including Nucleoside and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI); Nucleoside analogues; Protease Inhibitors (PI); and Hydroxy Urea with special emphasis on Retroviral Therapy in Pregnancy, Labour and the Newborn.

 

PHA 504: Drugs Acting on the Central Nervous System

Special situations of Drug Action; entry of Drugs in CNS.; Non-narcotic Analgesics; Opiate Receptors; Narcotic Analgesics; Narcotic Antagonists and Partial Agonists; Antipyretic agents. Sleep: Barbiturates and Non-barbiturate agents; Alcohols, Review of General and Local Anaesthetic Drugs; Anaesthesia in persons already taking drugs Neuromuscular Blocking Agents; Central Nervous System Stimulants, Anticonvulsant Drugs: Epilepsies, Principles of Antiepileptic Treatment; Review of Different Groups of Antiepileptic Drugs, Status Epilepticus.  Epilepsy and Special situations – pregnancy; Contraception; Anaesthesia, Surgery, Miscellaneous Anticonvulsant Drugs.  Treatment of Parkinsonism: Levodopa, Decarboxylase Inhibitors, Bromocriptine, Amantidine; Anticholinergics; Anti-histaminics; Phenothiazines. Drug Therapy of Spasticity: Dantrolene, Baclofen; Interneuronal Blockers. Drugs in Myaesthenia Gravis.  Drugs in Mental Disorders Psychoses, Depression; Anxiety, Neuroleptics – Phenothiazines; Butyrophenones; Dihydroindoles; Dibenzodiazepines; Rawolfia Alkaloids.  Anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines; Antidepressants with sedative properties; Thymoleptics; Tricyclics; Bicyclics; Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Hydrazines and Non-Hydrazine); Amino acid Precursors of Transmitter Amines; Amines; Tetraphydroisoquinoline Derivatives; Lithium; Psychostimulants; Psychodysleptics.

 

PHA 505: Special Topics

Drug Treatment of Joint Diseases: Inflammatory Arthropathy and Degenerative joint Diseases; Metabolic Disposition Arthropathy; Analgesics; Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAID); Corticosteroids Long-term: Antirheumatic Agents; Gold salts, d-penicillamine: Chloroquine; Immunosuppressive Agents; Levamisole; Gout; Colchicine and Democalcine; phenylbutazone; Indomethacin, Probenecid; Ethiebencid, allopurinol.  Pharmacology of Endocrine System: Mechanism of action of Hormones, CNS: Hypothalamus – Adenohypophysis – Endocrine Glands, Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Hormones; Thyroid Hormones and Antithyroid Drugs; Parathyroid Hormones: Calcitonin; Diabetes Mellitus: Insulin; Oral Hypoglycaemics, Adrenocortical Hormones, Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, Hyperaldosteronism; Sex –Hormones: Oestrogens, Androgens, Progestogens, Antagonists to Hormones; Pharmacologic Methods of Family Planning. Drugs in Obstetrics and Gynaecology: Drugs in Pregnancy; Drugs Affecting Uterine Motility: Ergotamine, Oxytocin, Prostaglandins. Drugs Acting on the Skin: General Aspects of the Dermal Pharmacokinetics; forms of topical application and systemic administration in dermal conditions; topical antifungal and steroid preparations and adverse effects. Chemotherapy of Malignant diseases Practical Classes/Demonstration: A reasonable number of practical classes and demonstrations should be organized to make the students understand the nature of drug action.

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE

Philosophy

To produce medical graduates who have adequate knowledge, attitudes, values and skills in community medicine for clinical practice, and are equipped for life-long professional learning.

Objectives

Broad objective

To produce competent professionals equipped with adequate knowledge of community medicine to undertake evidence-based management of common public health disorders

Specific objectives

At the end of the posting, the student should be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the concept of Community Health and its relevance in the health care delivery system of Nigeria.
  • Carry out epidemiological studies to identify the prevalent health problems in the community and also to determine ways and methods of alleviating the problems.
  • Plan, organise and evaluate appropriate health programmes (promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative) in collaboration with other members of the health
  • Participate in team-work to reduce mortality and morbidity in the community and also to improve the quality of life generally

MODE OF DELIVERY

Combinations of the following teaching methods:

Lectures, Tutorials, Seminars, Practical sessions, Clinical demonstrations and teachings

ASSESSMENT METHODS

Objective questions, Short answer questions, Long essays, OSPEs

Revision sessions in Community Medicine

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

-           Apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in Community Medicine as they relate to healthcare delivery.

 

Course contents

COM 401:Introduction to Medical Statistics

Role of statistics in Human Biology and Medicine. Collection and organization of data and scales of measurements. Presentation of data. Measures of central tendency and location. Measures of variability. Introduction to probability and inductive statistics. Estimating population values. Statistical significance of difference. Association, correlation and regression. Critique of a scientific paper. Planning of health survey. Design and interpretation of clinical trials.

 

 

COM 402: Human Ecology/Medical Sociology

Sociology of the Family: Family structures and Patterns, Marriage and Family Institutions, functions of the Families; Family structures and health. Male participation in reproductive health issues.

Mental health:

including prevention and social aspects of mental health, special care, child care and marriage guidance. Human organisations and system: behaviour and non-behavioural factors contributing to health; human change processes (biological and psychological) and; moral and cultural obligation of citizens; culture and reproductive health care, human rights – including rights of the child, women and other vulnerable individuals; universal declaration of human rights; international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination and sexual harassment. Convention on the elimination of all forms of disc

LEARNING OUTCOMES/COMPETENCES FOR MEDICAL GRADUATES OF

THE COLLEGE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, EDO UNIVERSITY

 

ALL GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY MUST BE ABLE TO ACHIEVE THE COMPETENCES BELOW AT THE LEAST LEVEL OF BEING COMPETENT

 

SELF-ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT’S ROTATION

 

A:     Carry out a consultation with the patient

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Take a history

 

 

 

Carry out physical examination

 

 

 

Make clinical judgments and decisions

 

 

 

Provide explanation and advice

 

 

 

Provide reassurance and support

 

 

 

Assess the mental state

 

 

 

Assess communicable diseases

 

 

 

 

 

 

B:     Assess clinical presentations, order investigations, make differential diagnoses, and negotiate a management plan

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Recognise and assess the severity of clinical presentations

 

 

 

Order appropriate investigations and interpret the results

 

 

 

Make differential diagnoses

 

 

 

Discuss an appropriate management plan with patients and carers

 

 

 

Provide care of the dying and their families

 

 

 

Management chronic illness

 

 

 

Identify vulnerable people and takes steps to protect

 

 

 

Consider communicable diseases

 

 

 

 

C: Provide immediate care of medical emergencies,

including First Aid and resuscitation

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Recognize and assess acute medical emergencies

 

 

 

Treat acute medical emergencies

 

 

 

Provide basic First Aid

 

 

 

Provide basic life support based on standard guidelines

 

 

 

Provide advance life support according to standard guidelines

 

 

 

Provide trauma care according to current standard guidelines

 

 

 

Provide emergency obstetric procedures

 

 

 

 

 


D:    Prescribe drugs

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Prescribe rationally

 

 

 

Match appropriate drugs and other therapies to the clinical syndromes

 

 

 

Review and explain to family the appropriateness of drug and other

 

 

 

Therapies and evaluate potential benefits and risks

 

 

 

Manage pain and distress

 

 

 

Understanding drug-drug interaction

 

 

 

Refer as appropriate

 

 

 

 

 

E:  Carry out practical procedures safely, efficiently and effectively

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Measure blood pleasure

 

 

 

Venepuncture

 

 

 

Cannulation of veins

 

 

 

Administer IV therapy and use infusion devices

 

 

 

Subcutaneous and intramuscular injection

 

 

 

Administer oxygen

 

 

 

Bouginage

 

 

 

Otoscopy

 

 

 

Move and handle patients

 

 

 

Foreign body removal

 

 

 

Suturing

 

 

 

Reduction of fractures/dislocation

 

 

 

Exchange blood transfusion

 

 

 

Application of POP

 

 

 

Fundoscopy

 

 

 

Blood transfusion

 

 

 

Bladder catheterization

 

 

 

Urinalysis

 

 

 

Electrocardiography

 

 

 

 

Basic respiratory function tests

 

 

 

Manage normal delivery

 

 

 

Various cut-down

 

 

 

 

F:  Communicate effectively in a medical context

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

With authorities

 

 

 

With patients

 

 

 

With colleagues

 

 

 

With empathy

 

 

 

In breaking bad news

 

 

 

With family

 

 

 

With physically challenged people   

 

 

 

In seeking informed consent

 

 

 

In writing (including medical records)

 

 

 

In dealing with aggression

 

 

 

By telephone

 

 

 

With those who require an interpreter

 

 

 

 

G:  Apply ethical and legal principles in medical practice

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Maintain confidentiality

 

 

 

Apply ethical principles and analysis to clinical care

 

 

 

Obtain and record informed consent

 

 

 

Certify death

 

 

 

Request autopsy

 

 

 

Apply national law to clinical care

 

 

 

 

 

H:  Apply psychological principles, method and knowledge to Medical Practice

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Explain normal human behavior at an individual level.

 

 

 

Discuss psychological concepts of health, illness and disease

 

 

 

Apply theoretical frameworks of psychology to explain the varied responses of individuals, groups and societies to disease

 

 

 

Explain psychological factors that contribute to illness, the course of the disease and the success of treatment

 

 

 

Discuss psychological aspect of behavioural change and treatment compliance

 

 

 

Discuss adaptation to major life changes, such as bereavement, comparing and contrasting the abnormal adjustments that might occur in these situations

 

 

 

Identify appropriate strategies for managing patients with dependence issues and other demonstrations of self-harm

 

 

 

 

 

 

I:  Apply the principles, skills and knowledge of evidence-based medicine

 

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Apply evidence to practice

 

 

 

Define and carry out an appropriate literature search

 

 

 

 

Critically appraise published medical literature

 

 

 

 


J:  Use information and information technology effectively in a medical context

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Keep accurate and complete clinical records

 

 

 

Use computer in storage and retrieval of medical information

 

 

 

 

K:  Engage with population in the promotion of health

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Engage with the population in the promotion and health advocacy.

 

 

 

Apply measures to prevent the spread of infection

 

 

 

Ensure own health does not interfere with professional responsibilities

 

 

 

Conform with professional regulation and certification to practice

 

 

 

Receive and provide professional appraisal

 

 

 

Make informed career choices

 

 

 

 

 

L:  Professional attributes

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Probity, honesty, ethical commitment

 

 

 

Commitment to maintaining good practice and concern for quality

 

 

 

Critical and self-critical abilities, reflective practice

 

 

 

Empathy

 

 

 

Creativity

 

 

 

Initiative and will to succeed

 

 

 

Good interpersonal skills

 

 

 

M:       Professional working

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Ability to recognize limits and ask for help

 

 

 

Capacity to deal with uncertainty and adapt to new situations

 

 

 

Ability to lead others

 

 

 

Ability to work autonomously when necessary

 

 

 

Ability to solve problems

 

 

 

Ability to make decisions

 

 

 

Ability to work in a multidisciplinary team

 

 

 

Ability to communicate with experts in other disciplines

 

 

 

Capacity for organization and planning (including time management)

 

 

 

 

N         The doctor as expert

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Capacity for analysis and synthesis

 

 

 

Capacity to learn (including lifelong self-directed learning)

 

 

 

Capacity for applying  knowledge in practice

 

 

 

Ability to teach others

 

 

 

Research skills

 

 

 

 

  1. The global doctor

 

Fair

Good

Very Good

Appreciation of diversity and multi culturality

 

 

 

Understanding of cultures and customs of other countries

 

 

 

Ability to work in an international context

 

 

 

Knowledge of second language

 

 

 

General knowledge outside medicine

 

 

 

 

Modified:  Tuning and Harmonisation of Higher Education: The African Experience, Chapter 7, pages 265-314. 2014.

 

LEARNING OUTCOMES/COMPETENCES FOR MEDICAL GRADUATES OF

THE COLLEGE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, EDO UNIVERSITY

 

ALL GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY MUST BE ABLE TO ACHIEVE THE COMPETENCES BELOW AT THE LEAST LEVEL OF BEING COMPETENT

 

TEACHER’S ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT’S ROTATION

 

 

A:     Carry out a consultation with the patient

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Take a history

 

 

 

 

 

Carry out physical examination

 

 

 

 

 

Make clinical judgments and decisions

 

 

 

 

 

Provide explanation and advice

 

 

 

 

 

Provide reassurance and support

 

 

 

 

 

Assess the mental state

 

 

 

 

 

Assess communicable diseases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B:     Assess clinical presentations, order investigations, make differential diagnoses, and negotiate a management plan

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Recognise and assess the severity of clinical presentations

 

 

 

 

 

Order appropriate investigations and interpret the results

 

 

 

 

 

Make differential diagnoses

 

 

 

 

 

Discuss an appropriate management plan with patients and carers

 

 

 

 

 

Provide care of the dying and their families

 

 

 

 

 

Management chronic illness

 

 

 

 

 

Identify vulnerable people and takes steps to protect

 

 

 

 

 

Consider communicable diseases

 

 

 

 

 

 

C: Provide immediate care of medical emergencies,

including First Aid and resuscitation

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Recognize and assess acute medical emergencies

 

 

 

 

 

Treat acute medical emergencies

 

 

 

 

 

Provide basic First Aid

 

 

 

 

 

Provide basic life support based on standard guidelines

 

 

 

 

 

Provide advance life support according to standard guidelines

 

 

 

 

 

Provide trauma care according to current standard guidelines

 

 

 

 

 

Provide emergency obstetric procedures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


D:    Prescribe drugs

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Prescribe rationally

 

 

 

 

 

Match appropriate drugs and other therapies to the clinical syndromes

 

 

 

 

 

Review and explain to family the appropriateness of drug and other

 

 

 

 

 

Therapies and evaluate potential benefits and risks

 

 

 

 

 

Manage pain and distress

 

 

 

 

 

Understanding drug-drug interaction

 

 

 

 

 

Refer as appropriate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E:  Carry out practical procedures safely, efficiently and effectively

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Measure blood pleasure

 

 

 

 

 

Venepuncture

 

 

 

 

 

Cannulation of veins

 

 

 

 

 

Administer IV therapy and use infusion devices

 

 

 

 

 

Subcutaneous and intramuscular injection

 

 

 

 

 

Administer oxygen

 

 

 

 

 

Bouginage

 

 

 

 

 

Otoscopy

 

 

 

 

 

Move and handle patients

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign body removal

 

 

 

 

 

Suturing

 

 

 

 

 

Reduction of fractures/dislocation

 

 

 

 

 

Exchange blood transfusion

 

 

 

 

 

Application of POP

 

 

 

 

 

Fundoscopy

 

 

 

 

 

Blood transfusion

 

 

 

 

 

Bladder catheterization

 

 

 

 

 

Urinalysis

 

 

 

 

 

Electrocardiography

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic respiratory function tests

 

 

 

 

 

Manage normal delivery

 

 

 

 

 

Various cut-down

 

 

 

 

 

 

F:  Communicate effectively in a medical context

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

With authorities

 

 

 

 

 

With patients

 

 

 

 

 

With colleagues

 

 

 

 

 

With empathy

 

 

 

 

 

In breaking bad news

 

 

 

 

 

With family

 

 

 

 

 

With physically challenged people   

 

 

 

 

 

In seeking informed consent

 

 

 

 

 

In writing (including medical records)

 

 

 

 

 

In dealing with aggression

 

 

 

 

 

By telephone

 

 

 

 

 

With those who require an interpreter

 

 

 

 

 

 

G:  Apply ethical and legal principles in medical practice

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Maintain confidentiality

 

 

 

 

 

Apply ethical principles and analysis to clinical care

 

 

 

 

 

Obtain and record informed consent

 

 

 

 

 

Certify death

 

 

 

 

 

Request autopsy

 

 

 

 

 

Apply national law to clinical care

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H:  Apply psychological principles, method and knowledge to Medical Practice

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Explain normal human behavior at an individual level.

 

 

 

 

 

Discuss psychological concepts of health, illness and disease

 

 

 

 

 

Apply theoretical frameworks of psychology to explain the varied responses of individuals, groups and societies to disease

 

 

 

 

 

Explain psychological factors that contribute to illness, the course of the disease and the success of treatment

 

 

 

 

 

Discuss psychological aspect of behavioural change and treatment compliance

 

 

 

 

 

Discuss adaptation to major life changes, such as bereavement, comparing and contrasting the abnormal adjustments that might occur in these situations

 

 

 

 

 

Identify appropriate strategies for managing patients with dependence issues and other demonstrations of self-harm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I:  Apply the principles, skills and knowledge of evidence-based medicine

 

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Apply evidence to practice

 

 

 

 

 

Define and carry out an appropriate literature search

 

 

 

 

 

 

Critically appraise published medical literature

 

 

 

 

 

 

J:  Use information and information technology effectively in a medical context

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Keep accurate and complete clinical records

 

 

 

 

 

Use computer in storage and retrieval of medical information

 

 

 

 

 

 

K:  Engage with population in the promotion of health

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Engage with the population in the promotion and health advocacy.

 

 

 

 

 

Apply measures to prevent the spread of infection

 

 

 

 

 

Ensure own health does not interfere with professional responsibilities

 

 

 

 

 

Conform with professional regulation and certification to practice

 

 

 

 

 

Receive and provide professional appraisal

 

 

 

 

 

Make informed career choices

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

L:  Professional attributes

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Probity, honesty, ethical commitment

 

 

 

 

 

Commitment to maintaining good practice and concern for quality

 

 

 

 

 

Critical and self-critical abilities, reflective practice

 

 

 

 

 

Empathy

 

 

 

 

 

Creativity

 

 

 

 

 

Initiative and will to succeed

 

 

 

 

 

Good interpersonal skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M:       Professional working

 

Novice

Fair

Competent

Proficient

Expert

Ability to recognize limits and ask for help

 

 

 

 

 &

BASIC ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

Candidates to be admitted into the degree programmes must possess a good score at the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME).  In addition candidates must possess credit passes in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and English language at the SSCE, WASC, GCE ‘O’ level, NECO or its equivalent as determined from time to time by the senate of the university.

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