Department of Medicine and Surgery

SECTION 1

PREAMBLE

1.1       The history of Edo University, Iyamho College of Medical Sciences

The Edo University, Iyamho was established by Edo University Uzairue law (2014) and subsequently amended to Edo University, Iyamho, Uzairue, (Amendment Law) 2015 and further amended as Edo University Iyamho (Amendment Law) 2016. The amendment to the law 2015 enables the university to be located at Iyamho, Uzairue, Etsako –West Local Government area of Edo State. The Edo University Iyamho was accorded recognition and issued license by the National Universities Commission (NUC) on 23rd March, 2016, as the 41st state owned University and 142nd University in Nigeria.

The purpose for establishing the University is to meet the increasing demands for quality tertiary education in Edo state in particular and Nigeria as a whole. The Edo State Government also realised that developing human capital through quality education is the key to meaningful development of the state, hence the need to establish a university that will provide quality education. The Edo University, Iyamho is expected to propel social, economic, political, cultural, scientific and industrial growth of the Edo State and Nigeria.

In 2014, the state government, in pursuit of its goals of providing and ensuring health care delivery to all, established the College of Medical Sciences as a unit of the Edo University, Iyamho.

 

2.0. VISION AND MISSION

2.1. Vision

To become a centre of excellence for quality teaching, research, innovations and community development for the enhancement of human resources for health.

2.2. Mission

To:

  1. Train competent doctors who are able to deal with contemporary health needs
  2. Train healthcare providers for the service of humanity

iii.        Enhance the health needs of the community

 

2.3. Goals

The goals of training at the Edo University College of Medical Sciences are:

  1. Delivery of quality medical education in accordance with contemporary knowledge that meet national and international standards
  2. Demonstration of competences in the appropriate care of patients through multidisciplinary training.

 3.0. PHILOSOPHY OF THE CURRICULUM

Reforms in medical education are informed by emerging challenges in healthcare delivery and administration. The curriculum of EUI College of Medical Sciences would be competency-based with significant students-directed learning and integration between pre-clinical and clinical training. New technologies for health and pedagogy would be deployed for improvement of learning.

4.0. STRUCTURE OF THE EUI MBBS PROGRAMME

The EUI Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree is a six-year full-time programme with the possibility of a five year programme with direct entry qualifications. A possibility of a Bachelor’s degree in basic sciences shall be awarded with an additional one year in basic sciences.  Students who are unable to proceed further in the MBBS programme shall be advised to continue with a Bachelor’s degree programme in the basic medical sciences amongst other options.

 5.0. BASIC ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

Candidates to be admitted into the degree programmes must possess a good score at the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME).  In addition candidates must possess credit passes in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and English language at the SSCE, WASC, GCE ‘O’ level, NECO or its equivalent as determined from time to time by the senate of the university.

 6.0. DEGREE CLASSIFICATION

The degree shall be unclassified. Excellence shall be recognised through the awards of distinction and prizes.

 7.0. COMPETENCES OF THE GRADUATE OF THE EUI COLLEGE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

The College of Medical Sciences would ensure that its graduates are able to:

  1. Carry out appropriate consultations with patients
  2. Diagnose and negotiate management plans.
  • Provide immediate care for medical emergencies
  1. Carry out common medical procedures
  2. Communicate effectively and sensitively with patients, patients’ relations and other members of the health team
  3. Apply ethical and legal principles, and professionalism in medical practice
  • Use information and information technology effectively
  • Engage with population in the promotion of health and health education
  1. Demonstrate ability for lifelong self-directed learning
  2. Demonstrate capacity for research
  3. Demonstrate management and leadership skills.

 8.0. TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT IN EUI CMS

8.1.      Instructions in the Curriculum

Learning instructions in the College and Teaching Hospital will be mainly student-centred with lecturers as facilitators. In addition, sessions with experts from government and non-governmental agencies will complement these.

An objective of this curriculum is to ensure that medical students in each class have equivalent teaching and clinical exposures at the end of each session. These will be achieved by rotating the students through similar postings and lectures in any academic session with continuous assessment /examinationsat the end. The following instruction and assessment methods will be used.

 8.1.1. Competency-Based Learning

This would be achieved through:

  1. Informing students of the expected competences at the beginning of each posting
  2. Learning-objective-directed teaching
  • Prioritisation of desired competences into “must know”, “should know” and “may know”.
  1. Assessment focused at testing the acquisition of the “expected competences,” would be based on “knows”, “knows how”, “shows how” and “does” in relevant skills.
  2. Assessment of students by teachers will be based on Novice, Fair, Competent, proficient and being an expert.
  3. Self-assessment by students will be based on poorly, supervised and independent
  • Allocating 60 percent of the teacher-student contact time for practical/clinical teaching sessions, with the remaining 40 percent on didactic teaching sessions/small-group teachings/ tutorials ().
  • Increased emphasis on problem-based approach with a concomitant reduction of large-group teaching sessions.

 8.1.2. Self-directed learning/research and reflective learning

Self-directed learning through tutorials, e-learning and term papers, would be utilised to encourage students seek information independently and think in a critical and analytical manner.

8.1.3. Integrated system-based Learning

Integration of teaching and assessment would be “horizontal” if it is “concurrent,” in the preclinical or clinical disciplines, and “vertical” if it involves both disciplines “sequentially”. The integration ensures early exposure of the students to clinical aspects of medicine, better understanding and application of basic sciences to clinical medicine.

 In this curriculum, integration will occur during the following courses:

  1. Integrated Core Basic Sciences (CBSs)– 200L/300L first semester (horizontal integration)
  2. Clinical Application of CBSs – 300L first semester (vertical integration)
  • Integrated Clinical Posting I – 300L second semester (horizontal integration)
  1. Integrated Clinical Posting II – 400L (vertical and horizontal integration)
  2. Core Lectures – 400L (vertical and horizontal integration)
  3. Integrated Block Posting I – III (Basic Medical Sciences) – 300L and 500L (horizontal integration)
  • Infectious Diseases Posting – 400L (horizontal and vertical integration).
  • 600L (Horizontal integration)

 8.1.4. Community orientation

This ensures repeated contacts with the community by students of EUI which will encourage acquisition of appropriate competences in community orientation and care. Community orientation would ensure understanding of cultural diversity and sensitivity, dispute resolution mechanisms, assessment of specific community needs and mobilisation of community resources.

 8.1.5. Feedback processes through formative assessments

The EUI curriculum will adopt a two-way feedback mechanism between the students and the teachers to ensure continuous evaluation of both which include methods for identifying students who fail to meet the expected objectives.  There will be opportunities for correcting deficiencies in both students and teachers.

 8.1.6. Improved Mentoring

Curriculum would ensure increased contact time between teachers and students through small-group teachings and practical/clinical sessions thus promoting mentoring.

 8.1.7. Multidisciplinary team learning approach

Curriculum is designed to be multidisciplinary to ensure that students demonstrate the Multi-Disciplinary Team approach (MDT) to patient care through fostering understanding and mutual respect among members of the team. The team-care approach optimises patient care by involving physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrators, dieticians, health educators and social scientists/workers, among others.

 8.1.8. Allotment of credits units

The NUC benchmark minimum academic standards (BMAS) allot credits to courses and all courses in the MBBS programme are compulsory.  Credits acquired may be available for transfer at exit points.

8.2. ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS

8.2.1 Types of Assessment

8.2.1.1. Formative assessment: This would be carried out regularly (e.g., at least once every posting), prior to the summative assessment, to give students feedback on their performance and to improve learning.

 

8.2.1.2 Summative assessment: This is an examination that will determine the students’ progress during the course and will include continuous assessments, end-of-posting and all professional level examinations.

 8.2.1.3Term papers – Students would be required to submit at least one term paper per course as part of the continuous assessment.

8.2.2. Instruments for Assessment

8.2.2.1. Written examinations

8.2.2.1.1. Objective Questions: These may consist of true/false, Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs), the Single-Best Answer (SBA) and Extended Matching Questions (EMQs).

 8.2.2.1.2. Short Answer Questions (SAQs): These ensure wider content coverage within a shorter space of time compared with long essays. There would, however, be a marking scheme for each question to achieve a more-objective scoring and narrower variability between markers.

 8.2.2.1.3. Long Essays: These questions test in-depth knowledge of specific topics and are essential to ensure a balanced assessment. Similar to SAQs, there would, however, be a marking scheme for each question.

 8.2.2.2. Clinical Examinations

8.2.2.2.1. Objective Structured Examinations: These may either be “clinical” (OSCE) or “practical” (OSPE) since they are best in ensuring equivalent testing of a group of students.  The viva-voce will be incorporated into the OSCE and OSPE.

 8.2.2.2.2. Picture tests– These are pictures of clinical entities/scenarios, results of investigations/tests, equipment etc. A marking scheme would be provided.

8.2.2.2.3. Long case/short case: These would be used for in-course assessment of competences in addition to the OSCE.

9.0. OPPORTUNITY FOR INTERCALATED DEGREE PROGRAMMES

The EUI curriculum will provide a platform for suitable students to undertake a combined B.Sc./MBBS (Intercalated) degree. This can be a BSc in one of the basic medical sciences.  Students may commence the combined degree programmes at the end of the 300 level. At the completion of the intercalated degree, these students shall return to the MBBS programme at the 400 level.

 The EUI in future may introduce the MBBS/ Master of Public Health (MPH)/Master of Public Health Administration (MPHA) and MBBS/Ph. D. degree programmes

 10.0. EXAMINATION REGULATIONS

Examinations in EUI will consist of four professional examinations at varying times over the course of the programme. A candidate shall be qualified for these examinations after having satisfied the minimum requirements for each level as prescribed from time to time by the Senate of the University.

 

10.1 Part I MBBS Examination

This consists of Anatomy, Biochemistry and Physiology. A candidate shall be qualified for this examination after 18 months of instructions and satisfying the minimum requirements as prescribed by Senate.

A candidate attempting the Part I Examination for the first time shall present himself/herself for examination in all the subjects upon satisfactory completion of the requisite postings.

 

PASS CRITERIA

  1. To pass the examination, a candidate must score a minimum of 50 percent in anatomy, 50 percent in biochemistry, and 50 percent in physiology.

 

  1. A candidate shall take the Part I Final Examination at the end of the third semester after admission to the course. A candidate who satisfies the examiners in the whole examination shall proceed to the introductory clinical courses

 

CANDIDATES WHO FAIL

  1. A candidate who fails in one subject only may be permitted by Senate, on the recommendation of the Academic Board, to proceed to the introductory clinical courses and to be re- examined (after a minimum remediation period of eight weeks) in the subject in which he/she was referred. Such a candidate shall be required to attend a revision course in the subject in which he/she was referred.
  2. A candidatewho fails in two or three subjects of the Examination will be required to repeat the year.
  • A candidate who is unsuccessful in the resit examination shall be required to repeat the year.
  1. A candidate who is repeating the year and failsin one subject shall be allowed to attempt the subject attheresit examination.
  2. A candidate who is repeating the year and fails in two or three subjects shall withdraw from the programme.
  3. Subject to powers conferred on the Senate to extend the period of study as specified above, candidates who fail to complete the Part I Final Examination within 33 months after admission to the course shall be required to withdraw from the course.

 

10.2. Part II MBBS Examination

  1. The Part II Examination shall consist of Pathology (including Medical Microbiology, Chemical Pathology, Haematology and Anatomic Pathology) and Pharmacology. A candidate shall be qualified for this examination having passed the Part I, completed 12 months of instructions in Pathology and Pharmacology and satisfied other minimum requirements.
  2. A candidate attempting the Part II Examination for the first time shall present himself/herself for examination in both subjects upon satisfactory completion of the requisite postings.

 

PASS CRITERIA

To pass the Part II Examination, a candidate must score a minimum of 50 percent in pathology and 50 percent in pharmacology.

REMEDIATION

  1. A candidate who fails in one or both subjects of the examination may proceed with the clinical postings but must submit himself/herself for re-examination in the subject(s) in which he/she failed after a minimum of eight weeks of remediation.
  2. A candidate who fails in any subject in the resist examination shall be deemed to have failed the entire examination and shall be required to repeat the clinical postings and sit the Part II examination the following year.
  • A candidate, who after repeating the year, fails in one or both subjects at the resit examination, shall be asked to withdraw from the programme.
  1. No candidate may proceed to the Part III Examination unless he/she has passed both subjects in the Part II Examination.

 

10.3. Part III MBBS Examination

The Part III Examination shall consist of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

A candidate attempting the Part III Examination for the first time shall present himself/herself for examination in both subjects upon satisfactory completion of the requisite postings.

ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION TO EXAMINATION

No candidate shall be admitted to the Part III Examination unless he/she has completed the required postings of study after the Part II Examination.

A candidate must have at least 75% attendance at each of the postings.

PASS CRITERIA

To pass the Part III Examination, a candidate must score a minimum of 50 percent in Paediatrics and 50 percent in Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

A pass in the clinical components is compulsory.

REMEDIATION

  1. A candidate who fails in one or both subjects of the examination may proceed with the clinical postings but must submit himself/herself for re-examination in the subject(s) in which he/she failed after a minimum of twelve weeks of remediation.
  2. A candidate who fails in any subject in the resit examination shall be deemed to have failed the entire examination and shall be required to repeat the clinical postings and sit the Part III examination at the next attempt.
  • A candidate, who after repeating the year, fails in one or both subjects at the resit examination, shall be asked to withdraw from the programme.
  1. No candidate may proceed to the Part IV Examination unless he/she has passed both subjects in the Part III Examination.

 10.4. Part IV MBBS Final Examination

The Part IV Final Examination consists of Medicine, Surgery and Community Medicine.  The examination in Medicine will include Psychiatry and Forensic Pathology.  The examination in Surgery will include Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Ophthalmology and Anaesthesia.

A candidate attempting the Part IV Final Examination for the first time shall present himself/herself for examination in all the subjects upon satisfactory completion of the requisite postings.

 ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION TO EXAMINATION

No candidate shall be admitted to the Part IV Final Examination unless he/she has completed the required postings of study after the Part III Examination.

A candidate must have at least 75% attendance at each of the postings.

 PASS CRITERIA

To pass the Part IV Examination, a candidate must score a minimum of 50 percent in Medicine, 50 percent in Surgery and 50 percent in Community Medicine.

A pass in the clinical components is compulsory.

REMEDIATION

  1. A candidate who fails in one or more subjects of the examination must submit himself/herself for re-examination in the subject(s) in which he/she failed after a minimum of twelve weeks of remediation.
  2. A candidate who fails in any subject in the resit examination shall be deemed to have failed the entire examination and shall be required to repeat the year.
  • A candidate, who after repeating the year, fails in one or more subjects at the repeat examination the following year shall resitthe examination after 12 weeks remediation.
  1. A candidate who fails in one or more subjects at the resit examination, after repeating the year, shall be asked to withdraw from the programme.

 

11.0. EXIT POINTS

Students who wish to transfer to other undergraduate courses maybe permitted to do so using the aggregate credit units they would have acquired. This includes students who fail to pass the examinations after the maximum number of attempts and those wishing to withdraw from the MBBS programme for other reasons.

 

11.1. BSc Medical Sciences degree

The BSc Medical Sciences programme is one of the programmes to which students who have to withdraw from the MBBS may transfer to. This degree is usually aimed at students planning careers in health care and health-care-related professions other than medicine.

 

11.2. Intercalated BSc Medical Sciences degree

Any academically exceptional student at the Part I Examination, who wishes to acquire a Bachelors degree in any of the three subjects, will be encouraged to spend an additional year to carry out further studies and research.  At the completion of the Bachelors degree, such a student can resume clinical studies at 400 Level.

 

12.0. THE AWARD OF THE MBBS DEGREE

  1. A candidate shall be awarded the EUI MBBS degree after satisfying the Board of Examiners with the approval of Senate.
  2. No candidate will graduate unless he/she has passed the General Studies (GES) examinations as applicable.

 

 

 

SECTION 2

INTEGRATED BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES

  1. Anatomy
  2. Physiology
  3. Biochemistry

 

DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY

Philosophy

To provide the fundamental basis for understanding of the structure of the human body through an integrated multidisciplinary approach.    

 

Objective

Broad objective: To equip medical students with the knowledge of developmental processes and understanding the structure of the human body in health and disease.

 

200 level 1st semester

Specific objectives:

At the end of the posting, the student should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

  1. General and gross anatomy through dissection of the human body
  2. Developmental processes in humans

iii.        Microscopic structures of the human body.

 

200 level second semester

Specific objectives:

At the end of the posting, the student should be able to:

  1. Describe and identify the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of various systems of
    1. the body.
  2. Relate the structures of the human body to functions.

 

300 level 1st semester- Clinical application of basic medical sciences

Specific objective:

At the end of the posting, the student should be able to:

 

  1. Apply the knowledge of anatomy to the pathogenesis and principles of management of health and disease.

 

Revision sessions in anatomy

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

  1. Apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in anatomy as they relate to structures
  2. and function of the human body.

 

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Dissections, Histology and Problem-based questions

     

Measurements of outcomes of rotation

  • MCQs, SAQs, Viva Voce, OSPE

 

 

 

Course content

1st Semester 200 LEVEL

General Anatomy, Gross anatomy, General Embryology and General microscopic anatomy ANA 201 (6 units)

 

General Anatomy: Definition of anatomy. The Place of Anatomy in Medicine, Methods of the study of Anatomy, Application of Basic Anatomy to Clinical Medicine, Vertebrates and Man, Anatomy of the cell and cellular function, Classification of tissues, Joints, Classification of joints. Bone and Radiological Anatomy. Dentition. Nervous System, Muscles and Glandular Tissues.

Gross Anatomy: Lower limb: Osteology of Lower Limb, front of the thigh I         (femoral triangles, femoral canal and hernia, sub-sartorial canal). Front of thigh II, medial side of the thigh, gluteal region, back of the thigh, popliteal fossa, front of the leg and the dorsum of the foot, lateral side of the leg, back of the leg, sole of the foot (aches of the foot). Hip joint and the knee joint, tibio-fibular joints and ankle joints.

Abdomen, Pelvis and Perineum: Spermatic cord, inguinal canal and hernia, arteries, veins, lymphatic, abdominal alimentary tract, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney. Anatomy of pelvis and perineum (including genital organs), with emphasis on Clinical application.

Microscopic Anatomy: Cell structure and division, epithelial tissues, connective tissues, bone and cartilage, muscular tissue, nervous tissues I and II, peripheral blood, circulatory (blood vascular) system and lymphatic (lymphoid) organs.

General Embryology: The importance of Embryology in Medicine, sub- division of embryology. Origin of germ cells, spermatogenesis and oogenesis, sex determination, events leading of fertilization, oestrus and menstruation, ovarian cycle and ovulation, fertilisation, cleavage and gastrulation. The origin of germ layers, mechanisms of morphogenesis, foetal membranes, classification of the placenta, physiology of the placenta, growth, estimation of embryonic age. Introduction to experimental embryology. Twins and twinning. Teratology.

 

2nd Semester 200 LEVEL

Gross Anatomy, Systemic embryology (including genetics), Systemic microscopic anatomy and Neuroanatomy ANA 202 (6 units)

Gross anatomy: Upper Limb: Osteology of the upper limb, pectoral region and the breast, brachial plexus, scapular region and the axilla, shoulder joint, arm, cubital fossa and elbow. Forearm, wrist joint and hand. Vessels and lymphatic drainage of the upper limb.

Thorax: Osteology of the thoracic cage, intercostal space (intercostal muscles, vessels and nerves), pleura and lungs, mediastinum, cardiac plexus and thoracic diaphragm.

Head and Neck: Osteology of head and neck, scalp, temple and face. Deep cervical fascia, triangles of the neck. Deep structures of the neck. Cranial cavity and venous sinuses. Orbit and the eye. Parotid, temporal, infra-temporal, pterygoid, submandibular region, and temporo-mandibular joint. Oral cavity nasal cavity and paranasal air sinuses. Pharynx and larynx. Ear. Angiology of the neck and lymphatic drainage of head and neck.

Systemic microscopic anatomy: Digestive System I and II, glands of the digestive system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, urinary system, male reproductive system, female reproductive system, endocrine system I and II. Skin (integumentary system), nervous system (CNS and PNS). Eye and ear.

Systemic embryology: Derivatives of the pharyngeal arches, pouches (Development of Tonsil, Thymus, Thyroid, Parathyroid) and cleft. Anomalies of the derivatives. Development of the respiratory system, Development of the stomach, pancreas, liver, gall bladder and bile duct, rotation of the stomach and the formation of the lesser sac, Development of the intestine, rotation, withdrawal and fixation of the gut, The peritoneum, its reflections and the bare areas of viscera. Development of the urinary bladder and rectum. Development of the spleen.  Haemopoetic system. Development of the kidneys. Development of the gonads, uterus and prostate. Development of the external genitalia, descent of the testes, Anomalies of the urogenital system. Development of the vertebral column and skull. Development of the cardiovascular system, foetal circulation and circulatory changes at birth. Development of the musculoskeletal system, integuments-skins, hair mammary gland and teeth. Development of the head and neck.  Development of the central nervous system. Mechanism of Development of the Nervous system. Development of the special senses- eye, ear, nose, and tongue.

Genetics: Mechanism of inheritance: Mendel’s laws. Significance of oogenesis and spermatogenesis in man. Sex linkage. Effects of radiation and In- breeding in man.  Genes in development and differentiation; causes of abnormal developments; Sex ratio, twinning, congenital malformations. Nature of genes. Genetic control of inherited diseases; genetic counseling.

Neuroanatomy: Methods of study of neuroanatomy. Neurulation: brain vesicles, neurohistogenesis. Phylogeny of the nervous System in vertebrates. Coverings of the CNS. The neuron, axon and its sheaths.  Sensory receptors. Blood supply of the spinal cord. Development of the spinal cord. Internal Organization of the spinal cord, (a) ascending pathways, descending pathways, functional components Cranial Nerves. Applied anatomy. Development of brain stem and cerebellum. Cross sectional anatomy of the medulla, pons and midbrain. Cerebellum in posture and balance. Brainstem: cranial nerve nuclei, long tracts and connections, applied anatomy. Development of the Ear, auditory system and vestibular system, physiology of hearing. Cerebellum: gross features, cortex, white matter, circuitry, connections and functional consideration. Thalamus: connections, sensory and motor functions. Hypothalamic connection and functions. Basal ganglia: connections and functions. Cerebrum: gross features, Microanatomy, functional area and development. Development of the eye and visual System, physiology of vision. Limbic system and control of posture and movement.

 


DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY

Departmental Philosophy

To provide the fundamental basis for medical biochemistry and molecular biology for medical education and basic research methodologies.

 

Objective

Broad objective: To equip medical students with the knowledge of developmental processes and understanding the structure of the human body in health and disease.

Broad Objective– Integrated Core Basic Medical Sciences Postings

To equip medical students with sufficient knowledge of medicalbiochemistry and molecular biology to understand the processes of health and disease

 

1stSemester200LIntegrated Core Basic Medical Sciences I

Specific objectives:

At the end of the semester, the student should be able to demonstrate knowledge and practical understanding of:

  1. Basic biochemical processes in humans.
  2. Metabolism of macromolecules, blood, immunoglobulins, hormones and overview of disorders associated with distorted metabolism.

Biochemical importance of lipoproteins

 

2ndSemester200L – Integrated Core Basic Medical Sciences II

Specific Objectives

At the end of the semester, the student should be able to:

  1. Build on previous knowledge of normal biochemical processes.
  2. Acquire adequate knowledge of the biochemical basis of human diseases.

 

1st Semester300L– Clinical Application of Basic Medical Sciences and Revision of Core Basic Medical Sciences

 

Broad Objective

Produce medical graduates who are able to apply the knowledge ofbiochemistry to the pathogenesis and principles of management of clinicalentities.

Specific Objectives

At the end of the semester, the student should be:

  1. Proficient in the application of the knowledge of biochemical processesto the understanding of disease states in clinical practice.
  2. Show knowledge and skills of core basic medical sciences.
  • Show a good understanding of biochemistry prior toproceeding to clinical school.

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Practical, and personal studies   

Measurements of outcomes:

  • MCQs, SAQs, and long essays

 


Course Content:

Introduction to Biochemistry BIC 201 (6 units)

Structure, Chemistry and Functions of living cell. pH and Buffers.

Metabolism of proteins I:

Chemistry ad structure of the amino acids, essential and non–essential amino acids. Peptides, Proteins classification, structure and functions. Introduction to the metabolism of amino acids; transamination, oxidative deamination, decarboxylation, etc. The Urea cycle and its Biochemical importance. Metabolism of leucine, isoleucine and valine (The branched – chain amino acids). Structure and functions of biological membranes, membrane transport and disease.

Metabolism of Proteins II

Metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Metabolism and interconversion of threonine. Metabolism of the sulphur–containing amino acids; methionine, cysteineand cysteine inborn error. Metabolism of some amino acid: phenylketonuria, tyrosinosis, alkaptonuria, albinism, and cystinuria. Blood, Porphyrins, Haemoglobinopathies I: Blood, General properties and functions; the red cell and its metabolism. Blood, plasma, the plasma proteins; separation and functions, blood clotting mechanisms. The haemoglobin: Its structure, properties and biochemical functions. Blood, Porphyrins and Haemoglobinopathies II: Metabolism of porphyrins and porphyrinurias. Formation of bile pigments, jaundice. Haemoglobinopathies, thalassemia, haemophilia.

Metabolism of carbohydrates I: Classification and chemistry of carbohydrates, Chemistry and Biochemistry of the polysaccharides including the amino sugars, mucopolysaccharides, blood group substances, etc. Metabolism of Carbohydrates I

Metabolism of Carbohydrates; glycolysis (Embden–Meyerhof pathway), aerobic and anaerobic phases. Control mechanisms and substrate – level phosphorylation. The Kreb’s cycle/Citric acid cycle. Metabolism of galactose and fructose; the uronic acid pathway. Immunoglobulins: Types, structure, functions. Estimation of immunoglobulins; antigens and antigenic determinants, Immunotherapy. Hybridoma technology and monoclonal antibodies in Medicine and Biological research. Metabolism of Carbohydrates II: Definition and inter – relationships of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis and glycogenolysis. The Hexose Monophosphate Shunt and its Biochemical importance; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Metabolism of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates II: Diseases of the carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolism of the amino sugars

The Biochemical functions of hormones and clinical features of abnormalities

Characteristics of hormones. Molecular mechanism of hormone action. The parathyroid hormones: Chemistry, functions, and regulation of secretion, abnormalities

The pancreatic hormones: Insulin Chemistry, secretion, metabolism, function, assay; diabetes. Glucagon Chemistry and function Hormones of the adrenal cortex; glucocorticoids and the mineralocorticoids, biosynthesis regulation of biosynthesis and metabolic functions Hormones of the adrenal cortex, adrenocortical insufficiency; Addison’s disease; hyperaldosteronism. The biochemical functions of the gastrointestinal hormones; gastrin, etc. Gastrointestinal hormones. Assay of hormones. Techniques – Biological, Chemical and Radio–displacement assays. Hormones of the testis, the ovary and the placenta, testosterone, the androgens, oestrogens, progesterone, Hormones of the testis, the ovary and the placenta. Metabolism of nucleic acids I: Chemistry and structure of the nucleic acids: RNA and DNAPurine nucleosides and nucleotides

Pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides. Roles of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in intermediary metabolism. Synthesis and catabolism of purine nucleotides Synthesis and catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides Metabolism of nucleic acids II: Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Lipids I: Introduction to lipids; classification, chemistry and functions of lipids, digestion and adsorption of lipids. Formation of chylomicrons; transport of lipids in the blood; the lipoproteins, biochemical importance of lipoproteins

 

2nd semester 200 Level (6 Units)

Translocation and gene rearrangement in disease state. Gene rearrangement in Burkitt’s lymphoma and other diseases. Biochemical functions of nervous systems. Neurotransmitters: Biosynthesis and breakdown Diseases affecting the nervous tissues. Retroviruses, cancer, AIDS ad other diseases. Retroviruses: Molecular structure and involvement in cancer. Retroviruses, AIDS: Biochemistry of the virus, spread, detection, drug treatments and others. AIDS Drug resistance. Biochemical functions of the kidney: Renal function tests (RFTs) etc. Biochemical functions of the kidney. Biochemical functions of the liver: Liver functions, tests, jaundice, hepatitis Biochemical functions of the liver. Cancer: Proto–oncogenes and oncogenes. Biochemical features of Tropical Diseases. Biochemistry of the prostaglandins. Bioenergetics Electron transport and chain and oxidative phosphorylation in the generation of ATP Bioenergetics: Theories and models proposed for ATP generation, inhibitors of ETC, etc. Muscle action: Biochemical concept. Muscle action: Molecular concept, control. Metabolism of lipids II: Biosynthesis of fatty acids and of the triacylglycerol; mechanism involved. Metabolism of cholesterol: Biosynthesis, degradation into bile acids and bile salts.

Biosynthesis and degradation of triacylglycerol, phospholipids and sphingolipids. β–oxidation of fatty acids and the control mechanisms. Ketone bodies and ketosis. The biochemical functions of vitamins. The water–soluble vitamins: The B–group and Vitamin C. Biochemical importance of water–soluble vitamins in the body. The fat–soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and their biochemical functions Coenzymes: Structure and role in cellular metabolism. Nature and properties of enzymes. Introduction of enzymes: Enzyme classification. Catalysis and Kinetics of enzyme action. Factors affecting enzyme activity, allosteric effects, etc. Clinical importance of enzymes, Enzyme inhibition, Enzyme assay in clinical medicine; Immobilized enzymes. Introduction to human nutrition II: Water and the major ions: H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, HCO3, Fluid intake and output: Total body water distribution; intercellular, intracellular and extracellular fluids. Regulation of water balance in the body. Functions of electrolytes; dehydration and its correction, Ageing, Ageing and signalling pathways, Ageing and apoptosis, Concept of metabolic processes and oxidative stress in ageing

Introduction to Xenobiochemistry Phases 1 and 2 reactions Cytochrome P450 and drug oxidationMechanism of drug toxicity.

 

1st Semester 300 Level.

Clinical Application of Basic Medical Sciences and Revision of Core Basic Medical Sciences prior to the MBBS Part I Examination.

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to apply, analyse and evaluate knowledge and skills of Biochemistry as they relate to normal biochemical processes in health and disease of the human body.

 

 


DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY

Philosophy

To provide fundamental knowledge in basic physiology for adequate orientation towards the application of basic physiology to clinical practice and research.

Objective

Broad objective: To equip medical students with knowledge of physiological processes of the human body in health and management of clinical entities.

 

1stSemester200L: Integrated Core Basic Medical Sciences I

Specific Objectives

  • At the end of this semester, the student should demonstrate:
  1. Theoretical and practical knowledge of basic physiological functions.
  2. The understanding of physiological mechanisms in various human systems.

 

2ndSemester200L– Integrated Core Basic Medical Sciences II

Specific Objectives

At the end of the semester, the student should be able to:

  1. Strengthen previous knowledge of basic physiological functions and mechanisms

in various systems.

  1. Demonstrate adequate knowledge of derangement of physiological mechanisms that result in human diseases.

 

1stSemester300L – Clinical Application of Basic Medical Sciences and Revision

Specific Objectives

At the end of the semester, the student should be:

  1. Show knowledge and skills of core basic medical sciences.
  2. Proficient in the application of the knowledge of physiological processes to the understanding of disease states in clinical practice.

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Practical, and self directed learning.      

Measurements of outcomes:

  • MCQs, SAQs,long essays and viva voce.

 

Course Contents

Physiology PHS 201 (6 Credit units)

General Principles Introduction and History of Physiology. Structure and function of cell membranes with emphasis on transport across cell membrane. Biophysical principles. Osmosis, diffusion, active transport. Homeostasis and control systems. Blood and Body Fluids: Fluids of blood cellular components, blood groups, haemoglobin and haemopoiesis. Body fluids and electrolytes: their measurement and regulation.

Cardiovascular and Respiratory: Organisation and Structure of aorta and large arteries and arterioles – as resistance vessels, capillaries as sites of tissue fluid exchange. Heart – properties and function of cardiac muscle. Regulation of heart rate and cardiac output. Baroreceptors and control of arterial blood pressure. Regional circulation: heart, brain, haemorrhage, exercises, posture, altitude. The respiratory tracts: structure and function. Pulmonary gas exchange, mechanics of respiration, compliance, surfactant, lung volumes and capacities, uptake and delivery of respiratory gases with reference to 02 and C02 transport. Pulmonary function tests. Response to hypoxia, high altitude, exercises. Artificial respiration, chemical and neural control of respiration.

Gastro-Intestinal and Renal Physiology and Metabolism: Gastrointestinal tract, innervation and visceral sensations of the Gut, mobility and secretions, gastrointestinal hormones, pancreatic and biliary secretions, its adaptability to absorption of carbohydrates, protein, nucleic acids, fat, water, mineral etc. liver function tests. The Nephron, Urine formation Urinalysis, Urinary Concentration, ADH and Osmolality, Acids/Base Balance, Micturition, Endocrine function of the kidney

 

Physiology PHS 202 (6 credit Units)

Nutrition and Nutritional Metabolism: Principles of nutrition, vitamins and minerals, energy metabolism and metabolic rate, calorie deficiency states.

Endocrine and Reproduction PHS: Physiology of the male and female reproductive systems; puberty; menstrual cycle including ovulation; menopause; andropause and other endocrine organs. Physiology of coitus, pregnancy, human reproduction, lactation and contraception. Physiology of the pancreas, adrenal glands, pituitary, thyroid glands.

Nerves, Muscles and CNS: Sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways, role in the various systems – especially cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal. Excitable tissue and Nervous System; Structure and classification of muscles, excitation and contraction. Theories and principles involved in muscle contraction, resting membrane and action potentials, generation of impulse in excitable tissues, nerve and neuromuscular transmission. Simple reflex and spinal reflexes. Spinal cord – ascending, descending pathways receptors. Thalamus – sensory and motor cortex. Control of posture and movement. The reticular activating system, sleep, neural centers regulating visceral functions. Neurophysiological basis of instinctive behaviour, conditioned reflexes, learning, temperature regulation.

Special Senses: Method of studying, Physiology of special organs and senses.

 

 

SECTION 3

INTEGRATED BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES

  1. Chemical Pathology
  2. Histopathology
  3. Haematology
  4. Medical Microbiology
  5. Pharmacology and Therapeutics

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY

Philosophy

The posting is designed to highlight the central roles of biochemical and metabolic processes of the human body, in the aetiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of disease states.

Broad Objective

To equip students with the understanding of the biochemical processes to guide appropriate test ordering and interpretation of laboratory results for optimal clinical practice.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting the student should be able to:

  1. Describe and evaluate the roles of abnormalities of biochemical and metabolic functions of theorgan systems in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of clinical disorders.
  2. Demonstrate relevant skills in diagnostic techniques for identification of biochemical and metabolic disorders.
  • Interpret biochemical laboratory results in health and disease states.

Posting Description

1stSemester 300L: 1st Posting Integrated Block Posting I

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  1. Describe the pathogenesis of the common disease conditions affecting organ systems.
  2. Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the rationale for the selection of tests in the investigation of disease conditions.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the main causes of the non-pathological variation in measured biochemical values.
  • Interpret the biochemical tests for the management of diseases.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles of bio-safety in the clinical chemistry laboratory.

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Practicals.

Measurements of outcomes of rotation

  • MCQs, SAQs, OSPE, Viva Voce.

 

Course Contents

CPY 301 Chemical Pathology          4 Units

Requests for laboratory investigations, collection and preservation of specimen for investigations; Reference values; Traditional and S.I. Units; Homeostasis in Clinical Chemistry; Acid-base balance; Definition and causes of hypernatraemia and hyponatraemia; Definitions and causes of Hyperkalaemia and Hypokalaemia.  Investigations of water and electrolyte imbalance, Calcium and Phosphate disorders: parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and cholecalciferol.  Definition and causes of hyper and hypocalcaemia.  Definition and causes of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis.  Blood glucose homeostasis: glucose tolerance tests – performance and interpretation; diabetes mellitus; Formation of free fatty acids, ketone bodies and lactate; Plasma lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and non-esterified fatty acids. Plasma lipoproteins and causes of hyper and hypolipoproteinaemia.  Concept of risk factors for diseases and significance in prevention; Plasma proteins – reference values, separation of fractions and variations in health and disease.  Paraproteinaemias; Bence-Jones proteinuria and significance; Plasma enzymes – Transaminases, alkaline and acid phosphatases, creatine kinase, lactic dehydrogenases and their uses in diagnosis and management of diseases; Definition, causes and consequences of some common inborn errors of metabolism; Galactosaemia, lactose intolerance, Albinism, aminoacidurias, phenylketonuria. Tests of kidney function: urinalysis, measurement of glomerular filtration rate; definitions, causes and consequences of azotaemia, uraemia. Tests of hepatic function; jaundice: hepatocellular, haemolytic and obstructive. Functions of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary.  Thyroid functions and investigation of thyroid disorders.  Assessment of gonadal function in men and women. Diagnosis of pregnancy, assessment of foetal and placental integrity. Biochemical diagnosis of cancer. Tests of gastrointestinal functions.

 

2ndSemester 300L2nd Posting – Integrated Block Posting II

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  1. Strengthen previous knowledge and skills of biochemical investigations with emphasis on more specialised tests.
  2. Select more specialised tests in chemical pathology.
  • Interpret the results of the more specialised tests in chemical pathology.
  1. Operate the common point-of-care-test devices.

 

COURSE CONTENTS

CPY 302         Chemical Pathology II (4 Units)

Demonstrations: Specimen collection – different types of samples, tubes, sample identification, separation of plasma or serum, collection and preservation of urine specimens. Determination of blood gases and blood PH. Determination of glucose: Glucose estimation in blood by the glucose oxidase method (a specific method), Glucose estimation in the same blood by the ferricyanide reduction method (a non-specific method) and strip test for glucose in blood (semiquantitative method). Plotting of oral glucose tolerance test curves for a normal patient and a diabetic patient.  Urinalysis:  determination of urine specific gravity osmolality and qualitative tests for protein, glucose and reducing substances, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen and blood.  Haemoglobin and haemoglobin derivatives in urine. Occult blood in faeces.  Spectroscopy of haemoglobin and its derivatives in blood.  Non-invasive methods of monitoring hyperbilirubinaemia such as cutaneous bilirubinometry.  Estimation of blood gases, including use of pulse oximeter. Different methods of protein estimation; Electrophoresis of plasma proteins, haemoglobins and Isoenzymes. Demonstration: Column chromatography, Paper and thin layer chromatography of sugars and amino acids in urine. Demonstration:  Determination of serum enzymes; Radioimmunoassay of hormones in blood; Estimation of 17 – oxosteroid in urine, biochemical

 

analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); Methods of vitamin analysis in blood, estimation of immunoglobulins, Agglutination/Agglutination inhibition tests; Immuno-electrophoresis and gel Immuno-diffusion technique.  Rosette tests forcellular immunity appraisal and exercise: interpretation of laboratory results.

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY

Philosophy

The posting is designed for students to acquire sufficient knowledge of morbid anatomy, pathogenesis of disease processes, basic pathologic processes and mechanisms of diseases. 


Objectives

Broad Objectives

To equip students with the understanding of pathologic processes and pathological techniques in the investigation of disease processes.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting the student should be able to:

  • Demonstrate sufficient understanding of general and system pathology and application of same for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of diseases
  • Apply knowledge of pathology to clinical entities.
  • Demonstrate proficiency in the use of histopathological techniques in the diagnosis of disease processes.
  • Identify and analyse common medico-legal problems in medical practice.

Learning methods

  • Lectures, Tutorials, Practicals, self directed learning.

Measurements of outcomes of rotation

  • MCQs, SAQs, OSPE, Viva Voce.

 

Course contents

PAT 501 General Pathology           

Introduction – Ancient, traditional and modern concepts of diseases and their causes.  The normal cell and cellular basis of disease. Tissues and Cellular Injury.  Reaction to Cellular injury – inflammation.  Healing and Repair. Disturbances of cell growth – cellular adaptation and Neoplasia. Cytogenetics and Genetic Disorders. Pigmentary Disturbances. Calcification and Amyloidosis. Disorders of Nutrition.

 


PAT 502 System Pathology                                                                         

In this part of the course the principles of general pathology shall be applied to individual organs.  Emphasis shall be on those diseases commonly encountered or peculiar to the environment.  Thus in addition to global disease adequately covered in all standard text-books of pathology, the following should be specially emphasized:

Cardiovascular System: Hypertensive heart disease and heart failure, Cardiomyopathies – Congestive, Restrictive including EMF, hypertrophic. Respiratory: Pneumonias, effusions, cancers of the lungs, obstructive airway diseases, Tuberculosis. Renal: Nephropathy associated with malaria and other infestations and infections. Lympho-reticular:Malignant Lymphomas (Non-Hodgkin’s and Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Burkitt’s) Idiopathic Tropical Splenomegaly Syndrome (ITSS). Gastrointestinal Tract: Cancers of the mouth, oesophagus and stomach, intestinal lymphomas.          Liver: Hepatitis – Hepatitis viruses, yellow fever, Lassa fever, cirrhosis, primary liver cell carcinoma.   Nervous System: Infections – Meningitis, trypanosomiasis. Female Reproductive Tract: Pelvic inflammatory disease.  Cancer – Cervical, trophoblastic, ovarian. Ophthalmic: Inflammatory disease – pyogenic, trachoma, onchocerciasis: Nutritional: Protein – Calorie malnutrition: Skin: Inflammatory – Leprosy. Tumours – Kaposi Sarcoma. Bones: Tumours of the Jaw.

 


PAT 503         Histopathology                                                          

Practicals in Histopathology and Morbid Anatomy Attendance at post mortem sessions shall be compulsory.  Each student shall attend a minimum of twenty autopsies, assist in five and write up five.  At the end of the post-mortem clerking, each student should know how a coroner’s autopsy differs from the routine hospital autopsy.  Practicals in histopathology shall be organized to illustrate the application of theoretical knowledge to histopathological diagnosis.  At the end of the course the student shall be able to recognize tissue changes that denote acute and chronic inflammation, granulomatous inflammation, benign and malignant tumours.  Exercises in experimental pathology should ideally form part of the practicals in histopathology.

 

PAT 504         Forensic Medicine                                                                

Introduction to Forensic Medicine – history, definition. Medico-legal system – Medical examination/Coroner.  Nigeria Medical Council. Medical Defence Unions. Legal issues relevant to reproductive health. Sexual offences – Rape, Defilement (below 16years),incest; abortion and miscarriage. The doctor’s duty at the scene of death – natural, un-natural. Signs of death, estimation of the time of death. Identification. The medico-legal aspects of blood. Sudden and unexpected death. Circumstances and treatment of poisoning including investigations of death due to poisoning.  Some local poisons. Wounds – bruises, abrasions, lacerations, incisions, cut-throat and stab wounds. Injuries in road traffic accidents. Firearms and firearm wounds. Asphyxia – crash asphyxia, hanging, strangulations, suffocation. Drowning, Burns, Electrocution, Deaths from Lightning. Consent, professional secrecy, medical negligence. Writing a medico-legal report; the doctor in court; the Coroner and his duties. Alcohol abuse.

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF HAEMATOLOGY

Departmental Philosophy

The posting is designed for students to acquire sufficient knowledge of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs in the context of laboratory and clinical practice.

Objectives

Broad Objectives

To equip students with the understanding of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs including serology, techniques in the investigation of disease processes and the application to disease management.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting the student should be able to:

  • Describe the pathology, clinical findings and management of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs.
  • Perform basic laboratory procedures such as haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, white cell and platelet counts, blood film examination and ESR.
  • Identify normal and abnormal results
  • Apply the knowledge to the management of clinical conditions.

 

Posting Description

1stSemester 300L:1stPosting–Integrated Block Posting I

Specific Objectives

At the end of the posting, students should be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the processes of formation and pathophysiology of the cellular components of blood in health and diseases.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the basic pathophysiology of serology and coagulation disorders.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of normal reference and abnormal haematological values.
  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the pathology, clinical manifestation and management of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs.
  • Demonstrate skills in basic microscopic examination of the blood.
  • Describe and interpret haematological reports and be able to apply these to the investigation of common haematological conditions.
  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge and skills in safe blood transfusion.
  • Learning Methods
  • Lectures, Tutorials, and Practical demonstrations
  • Assessment Methods
  • MCQs, SBAs, OSPE and viva voce

 

HEM 501: Haematology and Blood Transfusion  (2 Units)

Development of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets; Normal structure and function of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets; Disorders of structure, maturation and function of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets; Red cell antigens and serum antibodies as they concerns blood grouping and cross matching; Physiology of haemostasis and manifestations of failure of haemostasis.

 

2ndSemester 300L:2nd Posting –Integrated Block Posting II

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  • Strengthen the knowledge and skills of haematological concepts.
  • Prevent and investigate transfusion reactions.
  • Demonstrate further knowledge of the processes of formation and pathophysiology of the cellular components of blood in health and disease.

 

HEM 502: Haematology and Blood Transfusion 

Biology of blood cells (including development and physiology of haematopoietic cell). Genetic control: heamoglobin synthesis and abnormal heamoglobin structure and function. Clinical syndromes associated with abnormal haemoglobins. Genetic counselling. Ante-natal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies. Anaemias: Definitions and classification. Clinical aspects of anaemia: Diagnosis of anaemias: Anaemias of infection, deficiency anaemia, haemolytic anaemia and anaemia associated with systemic diseases. Leukaemias: Definition and classification.

Acute and chronic leukaemias: diagnosis and management. Definition, presentation, diagnosis and management of haematological solid tumours: Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Burkitt’s Lymphoma. Monoclonal Gammopathies: Myelomatosis, Waldestrom’s disease. Platelets: Inherited and acquired disorders including purpura. Coagulation disorders: thrombosis, coagulopathies. Management of bleeding disorders and anticoagulant therapy. Blood Groups: Red cell antigens and antibodies. Indications for blood transfusion and management of blood transfusion reactions. Rhesus in compatibility, haemolytic disease of newborn. Blood transfusion and HIV/AIDS.

Practical haematology: Principles of haemoglobin and haematocrit estimation. Blood films and staining, WBC and Platelet counts. Films of haemolytic, iron-deficiency and folate-deficiency anaemias. ESR estimation. Tests for Thrombin time, PT/PTTK, estimation of fibrin degradation products.  Haemoglobin electrophoresis and sickling test.

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, PARASITOLOGY AND VIROLOGY

Philosophy

The posting is designed for students to acquire sufficient knowledge of the basic concepts of laboratory medicine and infectious disease pathology in the context of laboratory and clinical practice.

Objective

Broad Objective

To equip students with the basic knowledge of infectious agents, mode of infection acquisition and prevention and themicrobiological, parasitological and virological techniques for the investigation and management of disease.

Specific objectives:

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  • Describe the basic morphology and characteristics of infectious agents.
  • Define the normal body flora and roles in health and disease.
  • Describe the routes of transmission of various pathogenic organisms.
  • Describe the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation of infections.
  • Investigate infections, identify and differentiate various organisms of medical importance.
  • Describe the different level of interaction between the host, environment and pathogens.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the collection, transport and processing of clinical specimens.
  • Demonstrate the theoretical and practical knowledge of controlling infections in the hospital and community.
  • Demonstrate practical skills in the identification and classification of organisms.

 

 

Course contents

MIC 201: Bacteriology

Infectious diseases: nature and classification of bacteria of medical importance. Mechanisms of pathogen city and virulence. Microbial metabolism and multiplication. Exotoxin-producing bacteria. The process of sterilisation and disinfection. The normal body flora in humans. Description and identification of the following organisms: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp.,  Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. Mycobacterium spp. Brucella spp. Corynebacterium spp. Clostridium spp., Bacteroides spp., Haemophillus and Bordetella spp., Listeria, Yersinia spp., Vibrios, Campylobacterium spp., Enterobacteriacae, Ancinetobacterium spp. Pseudomonas spp., Actinomyces and Nocardia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia spp., Spirochetes.

Practical Bacteriology: Demonstrate knowledge and practise basic safety procedures in the microbiology laboratory. Demonstrate ability to use the light microscope. Demonstrate ability to prepare and stain specimens with Grams stain, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Giemsa stain.  Demonstrate negative staining reaction and spore staining reaction. Demonstrate ability to prepare wet mounts to show pus cells, shape of bacteria motility. Demonstrate ability to inoculate agar plates with different specimen. Describe colonial appearances of bacteria on an agar plate. Demonstrate ability to count bacteria in water, milk, food, urine and clothing. Demonstrate bacterial flora of the skin, mouth, hair, teeth, gingival crevices. Perform and interpret sensitivity test.  Demonstrate ability to perform sterilising efficiency test for ‘Dettol’ (Chlorohexyphenol), boiler and autoclaves, ‘Savlon’ (Cetrimide) and hibitane (Chlorohexidine). Demonstrate ability to perform slide agglutination tests for staphylococci, Salmonella spp. and E. Coli.

 

MIC 202:Virology

The development and cultivation of medically important viruses. Basic properties and classification of viruses. Systemic defences against viruses. Description and identification of the following viruses: influenza virus, polio viruses, chicken pox small pox virus, measles virus, yellow fever virus, lassa fever virus, rubella virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, herpes zoster virus, hepatitis viruses, mumps virus and Epstein-Barr virus. Description and identification of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) virus. Pathogenesis, clinical picture, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and control of HIV infection.

Practical Virology: Students will be expected to: recognise and interpret the following serological test for the identification of viruses: Complement fixation test (CFT), Neutralisation test (NT) and Haemagglutination test (HAT);identify pock forming viruses; demonstrate ability to recognise the effects of virus in experimental animals.

 

MIC 203:Mycology

Development of medical mycology, nature and classification of medically important fungi. Description and identification of the following fungi: Microsporium spp. epidemophyton spp. Trichophyton spp. Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma spp. Practical Mycology: Students will be expected to demonstrate ability to perform skin scrapings for the diagnosis of superficial dermatomycoses, identifydifferent morphological types of fungi under the microscope. Identify colonial morphology of the fungi on saboraudsagar.

 

MIC 204:Medical Parasitology

Different types of parasites: classification, structure properties and life cycle,including the identification of various stages of the following protozoa: Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoebahistolytica. Opportunistic pathogenic amoebae, non-pathogenic amoebae, Giardia intestinalis, Trichomonas spp., Balantidium coli, Trypanosoma spp., Leishmania spp.,Sarcoptesscabei.

Practical Parasitology: Students will be expected to demonstrate the ability to perform thin and thick blood films; ability to perform staining with Giemsa, Wright’s, Field’s and Leishman’s Stains. Demonstrate ability to recognize Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in stained smear. Demonstrate the ability to prepare wet ‘mounts’ and identify Trophozoites, Cysts, Giardia, Trichomonas, Entamoeba coli.

 

MIC 205: Medical Helminthology

Development of medical helminthology, classification of Helminths, general properties of Helminths. Description and identification of the following Helminths: Schistosoma spp. (masoni, haematobium and japonicum), Paragonimusspp, Fasciolopsis spp., Taenia spp. (saginata and solium), Echinococcusgranulosus, Ascarislumbricoides, Strongyloidesstercoralis, Ancylostomaduodenale, Necatoramericanus, Enterobiusvermicularis, Trichuristrichura, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereriabancrofti, Loaloa, Brugiamalayi, Dracunculusmedinensis, Acanthocheilonema spp., Trichinellaspiralis. Practical Helminthology: Students will be expected to demonstrate the ability to prepare wet mounts from stool with saline and iodine. Demonstrate ability to prepare thin and thick films for the identifications of microfilaria. Demonstrate ability to prepare wet mounts for urine. Demonstrate ability to recognize helminths from tissue biopsy.

 

MIC 206: Medical Entomology

Insects of interest in tropical diseases. Exodermic and Endodermic.

 

MIC 207: Applied Medical Microbiology

Central Nervous system: Causative agents and laboratory diagnosis of meningitis; aetiology of encephalitis, pathophysiology of tetanus. Respiratory Tract: aetiological agents of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Gastrointestinal Tract: aetiological agents of gastroenteritis and food poisoning. Cardiovascular system: aetiological agents of infective endocarditis and Rheumatic Carditis. Urinary system:aetiological agents of urinary tract infections. The role of blood culture in diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin (P.U.O.). Skin: aetiological agents of superficial dermatomycoses and Pyoderma cellulitis and myasis. Musculoskeletal system: aetiological agents of osteomyelitis, deep mycosis, abscesses, wound infections and pyomyositis.Aetiological agents of eye and ear infections. Aetiological agents and transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI’s); management and control of STI’s. Transmission and control of hospital infections.General principles of antibiotic chemotherapy; modes of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Vaccines, prophylactic immunisation. Universal infection prevention measures.

 

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS

Philosophy

To produce medical graduates who have adequate knowledge of basic pharmacology and are able to apply the knowledge of this basic medical science to clinical practice.

Objectives

Broad Objective

  • Introduce student to the knowledge and skills of basic pharmacology.
  • Strengthen previous knowledge of pharmaco-dynamic and pharmacokinetics.
  • Revise in a systematic manner the contents of the pharmacology curriculum.
  • Produce medical graduates who are able to apply their knowledge of basic pharmacology to the principles of management of clinical conditions.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the history, sources, constitution and uses of medications.
  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the mechanism of drug action and the process of drug disposal by humans.
  • Classify medicines for common disease conditions.
  • Demonstrate adequate knowledge of the rationale for the use of specific medications for common disease conditions.
  • Apply the rational use of medicines.
  • Understand the principles and detection of adverse effects from drugs.
  • Demonstrate a clear understanding of the key elements of the pharmacology curriculum.

MODE OF DELIVERY

Combinations of the following teaching methods:

  • Lectures, Tutorials Practicals and Clinical teaching

ASSESSMENT METHODS

MCQs, SAQs,OSPE.

 

Course Content

PHA 501: General Pharmacology

Scope of Pharmacology: Origin and Sources of Drugs; Routes of Administration of Drugs; Pharmacokinetics; Absorption of Drugs; Excretion of Drugs; Biotransformation of Drugs; Structure Activity Relationship; Mode of Action of Drugs; Types of Drug Action.  Drug Action in Man-compliance, Individual Variations; Presence of other drugs; Genetic Effects; Tolerance and Tachyphylaxis; Effects of Diseases; Drug Toxicity, Adverse drug Reactions; Drug Dependence; Drug Interaction.

 

PHA 502: Systemic Pharmacology

Neurohumoral Transmission: Drugs on Neuroeffector Sites: Autopharmacoids. Review of Neurohumoral Transmission; Transmitters in the Central and Peripheral Nervous system; Cholinergic and Adrenergic Receptors; Cholinergic Stimulants and Blocking agents; Adrenergic Stimulants and Blocking agents; Autocoids – Histamine Receptors and Histamine Antagonists; 5-hydroxytryptamine; Renin – Angiotensin; Kinins; Plasma Kinin, Bradykinin-kallikrein; Substance P; Prostaglandins; Leukotrienes; Cyclic Nucleotides and other mediators.  Drugs Acting on the Alimentary: Vomiting – Antiemetics; Constipation – Purgatives; Antacids – Anticholinergics – H2 Receptor Antagonists – Ulcer Healing Drugs; Gastrointestinal Hormones – Pentagastrin – Secretin; Non-specific Antidiarrhoeal Drugs; Lactulose; Lipid Disorders – Cholestyramine; Pancreatin; Cholecystokinin. Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System: Oxygen therapy, Bronchodilator drugs; Asthma, Status Asthmaticus; Cough Suppressants; Mucolytic Agents; Respiratory Stimulants.  Drugs Acting on Blood and Blood-Forming Organs: Anaemias; Iron Deficiency and other Hypochromic Anaemias; Megaloblastic Anaemias; Iron-Cobalamins – Folates; Anticoagulants, Heparin, Coumarin, Indandiones; Fibrinolysis – Fibrinolysin; Thrombus; Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; Blood Lipid Lowering Drugs  Drugs Acting on the Cardiovascular System: Heart Failure and its Drug Management; Anti-anginal Drugs; Ischaemic heart disease and its Drug Management; Antiarrhythmic Drugs, Hypertension and its Drug Management; Vasodilators Drugs Acting on the Urinary System: Diuretics; Alteration of Urinary PH; Urinary Tract Infections; Renal Failure; Immunity; Immuno – Suppressive Agents.

 

PHA 503: Antimicrobial, Antifungal Antiviral and Protozoal Diseases Drugs & Drugs against Human Systems

Microbes in Man; Mode of action of Antimicrobial Drugs; Sulphonamides; Penicillins; Cephalosporins; Aminoglycoside; Lincomycins; Peptide Antibiotics; Drugs Treatment of Tuberculosis; Miscellaneous Antibiotics; Vancomycin; Spectinomycin; Fusidic Acid; other Synthetic; Antimicrobial Drugs; Nalidixic Acid; Nitrofurantoin; Drug Treatment of Leprosy; Antifungal Agents; Fluorinated Pyrimidines; Imidazoles; Miscellaneous Antifungal Agents; Antiviral Agents; Methisazone; Idoxuridine; Cytarabine; Adenine Arabinoside, Interferons; Humoral Immunoglobulin.  Malaria; Trypanosomiasis; Leishmaniasis; Amoebiasis; Amoebic Liver Abscess; Giardiasis; Trichomoniasis; Ankylostomiasis; Ascariasis; Trichiasis; Strongyloidiasis; Enterobiasis; Trichinosis; Filariasis; Loasis; Onchocerciasis; Dracontiasis; Schistosomiasis; Fasciolopsiasis; Clonorchiasis; Paragonimiasis; Taeniasis; Cysticercosis; Hydatid Disease; Dyphyllothriasis; Tape Worm.Anti-retroviral Therapy: Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTI) including Nucleoside and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI); Nucleoside analogues; Protease Inhibitors (PI); and Hydroxy Urea with special emphasis on Retroviral Therapy in Pregnancy, Labour and the Newborn.

 

PHA 504: Drugs Acting on the Central Nervous System

Special situations of Drug Action; entry of Drugs in CNS.; Non-narcotic Analgesics; Opiate Receptors; Narcotic Analgesics; Narcotic Antagonists and Partial Agonists; Antipyretic agents. Sleep: Barbiturates and Non-barbiturate agents; Alcohols, Review of General and Local Anaesthetic Drugs; Anaesthesia in persons already taking drugs Neuromuscular Blocking Agents; Central Nervous System Stimulants, Anticonvulsant Drugs: Epilepsies, Principles of Antiepileptic Treatment; Review of Different Groups of Antiepileptic Drugs, Status Epilepticus.  Epilepsy and Special situations – pregnancy; Contraception; Anaesthesia, Surgery, Miscellaneous Anticonvulsant Drugs.  Treatment of Parkinsonism: Levodopa, Decarboxylase Inhibitors, Bromocriptine, Amantidine; Anticholinergics; Anti-histaminics; Phenothiazines. Drug Therapy of Spasticity: Dantrolene, Baclofen; Interneuronal Blockers. Drugs in Myaesthenia Gravis.  Drugs in Mental Disorders Psychoses, Depression; Anxiety, Neuroleptics – Phenothiazines; Butyrophenones; Dihydroindoles; Dibenzodiazepines; Rawolfia Alkaloids.  Anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines; Antidepressants with sedative properties; Thymoleptics; Tricyclics; Bicyclics; Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Hydrazines and Non-Hydrazine); Amino acid Precursors of Transmitter Amines; Amines; Tetraphydroisoquinoline Derivatives; Lithium; Psychostimulants; Psychodysleptics.

 

PHA 505: Special Topics

Drug Treatment of Joint Diseases: Inflammatory Arthropathy and Degenerative joint Diseases; Metabolic Disposition Arthropathy; Analgesics; Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAID); Corticosteroids Long-term: Antirheumatic Agents; Gold salts, d-penicillamine: Chloroquine; Immunosuppressive Agents; Levamisole; Gout; Colchicine and Democalcine; phenylbutazone; Indomethacin, Probenecid; Ethiebencid, allopurinol.  Pharmacology of Endocrine System: Mechanism of action of Hormones, CNS: Hypothalamus – Adenohypophysis – Endocrine Glands, Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Hormones; Thyroid Hormones and Antithyroid Drugs; Parathyroid Hormones: Calcitonin; Diabetes Mellitus: Insulin; Oral Hypoglycaemics, Adrenocortical Hormones, Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, Hyperaldosteronism; Sex –Hormones: Oestrogens, Androgens, Progestogens, Antagonists to Hormones; Pharmacologic Methods of Family Planning. Drugs in Obstetrics and Gynaecology: Drugs in Pregnancy; Drugs Affecting Uterine Motility: Ergotamine, Oxytocin, Prostaglandins. Drugs Acting on the Skin: General Aspects of the Dermal Pharmacokinetics; forms of topical application and systemic administration in dermal conditions; topical antifungal and steroid preparations and adverse effects. Chemotherapy of Malignant diseases Practical Classes/Demonstration: A reasonable number of practical classes and demonstrations should be organized to make the students understand the nature of drug action.

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE

Philosophy

To produce medical graduates who have adequate knowledge, attitudes, values and skills in community medicine for clinical practice, and are equipped for life-long professional learning.

Objectives

Broad objective

To produce competent professionals equipped with adequate knowledge of community medicine to undertake evidence-based management of common public health disorders

Specific objectives

At the end of the posting, the student should be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the concept of Community Health and its relevance in the health care delivery system of Nigeria.
  • Carry out epidemiological studies to identify the prevalent health problems in the community and also to determine ways and methods of alleviating the problems.
  • Plan, organise and evaluate appropriate health programmes (promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative) in collaboration with other members of the health
  • Participate in team-work to reduce mortality and morbidity in the community and also to improve the quality of life generally

MODE OF DELIVERY

Combinations of the following teaching methods:

Lectures, Tutorials, Seminars, Practical sessions, Clinical demonstrations and teachings

ASSESSMENT METHODS

Objective questions, Short answer questions, Long essays, OSPEs

Revision sessions in Community Medicine

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

-           Apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in Community Medicine as they relate to healthcare delivery.

 

Course contents

COM 401:Introduction to Medical Statistics

Role of statistics in Human Biology and Medicine. Collection and organization of data and scales of measurements. Presentation of data. Measures of central tendency and location. Measures of variability. Introduction to probability and inductive statistics. Estimating population values. Statistical significance of difference. Association, correlation and regression. Critique of a scientific paper. Planning of health survey. Design and interpretation of clinical trials.

 

 

COM 402: Human Ecology/Medical Sociology

Sociology of the Family: Family structures and Patterns, Marriage and Family Institutions, functions of the Families; Family structures and health. Male participation in reproductive health issues.

Mental health:

including prevention and social aspects of mental health, special care, child care and marriage guidance. Human organisations and system: behaviour and non-behavioural factors contributing to health; human change processes (biological and psychological) and; moral and cultural obligation of citizens; culture and reproductive health care, human rights – including rights of the child, women and other vulnerable individuals; universal declaration of human rights; international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination and sexual harassment. Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Convention of the Rights of the Child.

Ecological concepts:

Components of the environment (physical, biological and social). Man’s interaction with environment: adaptation process, balance and change. Human organization and systems. Traditional and modern health systems. Description of human populations.Behavioural concepts in public health. Classification of health behaviour and practices. Change processes. The community as laboratory. History of medicine

 

COM 403:Demography and Health Statistics

Sources of population data. Sources of health and vital statistics. Measurements of health and disease. Measurement of fertility and mortality. Standardisation of vital rates. Population dynamics, structure and growth. Interaction between medical action, population, health and population growth.

 

COM 404:Research Methods in Public Health

Sampling techniques. Design of medical and public health studies. Questionnaire design and data collection analysis and interpretation.

 

COM 405:Field and Laboratory Activities in Community Health

This consists of lectures and guided visits to various public health programmes including the following: Environmental health services including visits to water treatment works, sewage treatment plants, markets and other food processing factories and abattoirs, refuse disposal systems etc. Community Welfare Services, lectures and visits to Remand homes, Homes for motherless and handicapped children, prisons, schools for the deaf etc. Public Health Departments: Lectures and visits to familiarize with the activities of the department. Maternal and Child Health Services; lectures and visits. Public Health Laboratories: lectures and demonstration on their activities including testing of water etc. Control of Communicable diseases, lectures and visits to the tuberculosis clinic and the infectious diseases clinics. Occupational Health Services; lectures and visits to selected industries.

 

COM 406: Integrated Public Health Lectures and Endemic Diseases

Epidemiology, definition and principles and methods. Family Health (Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning). Health Education. Environmental Health. Occupational Health. Public Health Nutrition. Public Health Administration/Health Management. Primary Health Care. Social Medicine. Medical Ethics. Epidemiology: Definition and Principles of Epidemiology. Methods and uses of Epidemiology. Epidemiological Studies. Epidemiology and control of Common Communicable and non-Communicable diseases. Family Health: Concept and components and objectives of family health. Measurements in Family Health. Health problems of Mothers and Children. Practice of Family Health. Immunization Programmes. Population Dynamics and Family Planning. Organisation and Evaluation of Family Health Programmes Environmental Health: The Physical Environment of Man and Health. Components of environmental sanitation. Water supply and wastes disposal. Housing and Health. Food Hygiene and Vector Control. Legislation and Environmental Health Occupational Health: History of occupational health. The working Environment. Common Occupational Health Problems in Nigeria and their control. The Health Problems of Agricultural Workers. National and International Regulations relating to Occupational Health. Community Health Nutrition: Nutrition and Health. Epidemiology and Control of Common Nutritional problems in Nigeria. Infection and Nutrition. Nutritional values of Common Nigerian Foodstuffs. Food Policy, Hygiene and Toxicology. Assessment of Nutritional Status. Nutrition Education. Community Administration: History of Health Services Administration. Concepts, Principles and Functions of Management. Comparative Analysis of Health Care system in Different Countries. Organisation and Management of Health Services in Nigeria. The Health Team. Management of Human, Material and Financial Resources. The Economics of Health Care. The Health Planning Process. Evaluation of Health Services. Social Medicine: History of Social Medicine. The Underprivileged members of Society. Classification and Causes of Handicaps. Programmes for the Handicapped

Social Welfare Services in Nigeria and other countries. Sexuality Education i. e. Courtship, Marriage preparation: assertiveness, negotiate skills, responsible parenthood, sexual orientation, roles, values clarification, safe sex practices and family planning methods, frigidity, erectile dysfunction. Health insurance scheme, administration and management (man, money and material). National Population Policy, Sustainable Development and Population Development,

International Health: Origins and Development of International Health. The World Health Organisation. International Health Regulations. Other Governmental; and Non-Governmental Organisations involved with International Health.

Medical Ethics:

History and evolution of medical ethics. International code of medial ethics. Duties of doctors. The Nigerian Medical and Dental Council. Professional Negligence/Responsibility/Confidentiality/ Misconduct. Ethics of Medical Research The doctor and the law: Judicial, Coroner’s Court.

Gender Issues:

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women(CEDAW); Female Genital Cutting (FGC), Puberty and Widowhood rites; Male Child Preference and Discrimination against the Girl Child; Forced Early Marriage; Wife Inheritance and Hospitality Practices, Violence Against Women and Men, Sexual Abuse and Women Trafficking.

 

COM 407: Integrated Teaching with other Clinical Departments

This course is to demonstrate to the student the inter-relationship between Community Health and all other medical disciplines and how they contribute jointly to reducing mortality and morbidity and the general quality of life.

 

 

 

 

COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)

Broad Objective:

  • To familiarize students with locally available Nigerian and other African Medicinal Herbs and their applications in medicine.

Overview of traditional and herbal medicine use – (historical, current and global). Methods and techniques used in traditional & herbal medicine preparation. Research into herbal medicine or traditional medicine usage. Comparisons of efficacy of herbal medicine and modern drugs. Modernisation of methods and formulations of herbal medicine & traditional medicine. Advantages and disadvantages of traditional and modern medicine. Integration of traditional and modern medicine into health care – Role of government and practitioner groups in Nigeria. Methods of obtaining information on usage of herbal medicine or traditional medicine from patients. Common medicinal uses including case studies, adverse effects and interactions. Role of regulatory agencies in controlling usage (NAFDAC).

Field trip visit to Traditional Medical Clinic and Herbarium

 

 

COMPUTERS IN MEDICINE      (CIM)            

History of computer, functional components of computer, characteristics of computer, problem solving, Algorithms.  Computer Programming, statements, symbolic names, array, subscripts, exposition and control statements.  Introduction to basic programming languages. Application of Computers to Medicine:  Introduction to Basic Programming.  Input-output Statements.  Control Statements.  Data Base Management Systems.  Creation, access and storage in files.

Practical posting to computer centres.

 

FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOENGINEERING

Objectives:

At the end of this course, the student should be able to:

Understand what is meant by biomechanics, bioinstrumentation, biomaterials, and biotechnology;

Describe the engineering approach and the technology for solving medical problems

Course content:

Introduction to Bioengineering principles; Acid Base Reactions and

Thermodynamics; Biomechanics concepts; Biosensors, Bioinstrumentation; Biomaterials and Artificial Organs; Biotechnology; Introduction to Biomedical devices; Drug delivery; Hydrogels

 

DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE

Philosophy

To produce medical graduates who have adequate knowledge, attitudes, values and skills in internal medicine for clinical practice, and are equipped for life-long professional learning.

Broad Objective

  • To produce competent professionals equipped with adequate knowledge of internal medicine to undertake evidence-based clinical management of common medical disorders and emergencies.

Posting Schedules

1st Posting: Medicine I

Specific Objective

At the end of this posting, medical students should be able to apply knowledge of basic medical sciences to the patho-physiology and clinical management of common medical disorders.

2nd Posting: Medicine II

Specific Objectives

  • Take a detailed history to elicit symptoms from patients with medical illnesses.
  • Perform a physical examination on the patients in order to elicit clinical signs.
  • Formulate relevant differential diagnosis on the basis of history and physical signs.
  • Carry out simple common side-lab investigations.

3rd Posting: Medicine III

Specific Objectives

  • Formulate relevant differential diagnosis on the basis of history and physical signs.
  • Order appropriate investigations to refute or confirm diagnosis.
  • Carry out simple common side-lab investigations.
  • Be involved in formulation of management plan.

 

MODE OF DELIVERY

Lectures, Tutorials, Bedside clinical teaching, Clinical demonstrations, Chart review meetings, Grand rounds, Clinical teaching

ASSESSMENT METHODS

MCQs, SAQs, Bedside Clinical Evaluation, OSCEs

Revision sessions in Medicine

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

  1. apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in Medicine as they relate to healthcare delivery.

 

COURSE CONTENT

MED 301 APPLIED BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES

Applied anatomy and physiology of the renal, cardiac, respiratory, GIT (including hepato-pancreato-biliary system), skin, neurology, and endocrine system.

 

MED 302: INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL MEDICINE I

Lectures on basic clinical skills and simple clinical disorders. Demonstration on how to elicit basic physical signs.  Emphasis on technique and general approach to the patient. Tutorials on elementary clinical medicine with emphasis on aetiology and pathophysiology, (including basic principles of radiology).

 

MED 303 INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL MEDICINE II

Introduction to various health workers and their various functions, with clear emphasis on where the medical student fits in. Introduction to basic side-room tests on urine, stool, sputum and blood. Basic therapeutic principles as applied to common disorders.

 

MED 303: MEDICINE AS A PROFESSION

History of Medicine; Sociology of Medicine/The patient as a person; Communication skills; History and evolution of medical ethics. International code of medial ethics. Duties of doctors. The Nigerian Medical and Dental Council. Professional Negligence/Responsibility/Confidentiality/ Misconduct. Ethics of Medical Research. .The doctor and the law: Judicial, Coroner’s Court.

 

 

400 LEVEL     CLINICAL MEDICINE I

Students are by now expected to be competent in basic clinical skills.  Thus this period (referred to sometimes are Junior Medical posting) should be devoted to in-depth lectures, ward (bed-side) teaching, and tutorials.  Students should be able to clerk patients fully. 

Suggested subjects to be covered by lectures/tutorials:

 

MED 401: Cardiology I                                           

Relatively basic cardiovascular diseases: heart failure (diagnosis and management), rheumatic heart disease, infective endocarditis, blood pressure (mechanisms, treatment, prevention), pericarditis (constrictive pericarditis), pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, disorders of cardiac rhythm – introduction to ECG.

 

MED 402     Respiratory Medicine I                      

Pneumonia (pneumococal, staphylococcal, H. Influenzea), tuberculosis, airways disease (asthma, alveolitis etc.), some common complications of chest diseases e.g. pleural effusion, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, pleurisy etc.

 

MED 403     Gastroenterology I                              

Oesophagitis, gastro-enteritis (acute, chronic), peptic ulcer disease (with complications), cholecystitis,             pancreatitis (acute and chronic), jaundice (causes, management, types of), hepatitis: acute infective (type A), chronic (type B), non A, non B etc., Hepatoma (prevalence, causes), ascites (causes, management),             abdominal masses, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndromes and GIT infections e.g. dysentery (see under infections).

 

MED 404     Infectious Diseases                              

IDP – Infectious Diseases Posting. Epidemiology, Prevention and control, Aetiological agents (incubation periods, morphology), Pathogenesis (acquisition and transmission), Laboratory diagnosis, Clinical presentation and management and Socioeconomic relevance of infectious diseases. HIV-AIDS including epidemiology, pathogenesis, features – primary, asymptomatic or symptomatic infections; diagnosis, opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and candidiasis, prevention, management and control.

 

MED 405: Metabolic and Endocrine Medicine

Hypothalamic – pituitary – adrenal-thyroid axis, disorders of the hypothalamus, disorders of the pituitary gland, disorders of the thyroid gland, disorders of calcium metabolism, fluid and electrolyte balance, diabetes mellitus, inborn errors of metabolism, gout and Wilson’s disease.

 

MED 406: Neurology I                                            

Basic concepts, coma (causes, management), meningitis (CSM, H. influenza, Tuberculosis, pneumococcal), cerebrovascular diseases (including stroke), the cranial nerves and cord compression.

 

MED 407: Nephrology I                                          

Urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis,   acute and chronic renal failure, the nephrotic syndrome and infections e.g. schistosomiasis (see under infections)

MED 408: Dermatology I

 

Basic Skin lesions; Diagnosis of skin disorders; Basic Investigations;

 

Bullous eruptions; Papulosquamous skin lesions; Parasitic and viral

 

skin infections; Drug Eruptions; Pigmentary disorders;Pruritus

 

600 LEVEL      CLINICAL MEDICINE II

The student has by now acquired a fair amount of basic knowledge of common systemic disorders.  The objective of this posting is to consolidate his/her knowledge.  Accordingly emphasis should be directed towards encouraging acquisition of clinical skills.  The student should also be able to discuss his/her patients intelligently.  Additional topics to be covered during this posting should include:

 

MED 601: Cardiology II                             

The peculiar added heart sounds such as: Murmurs of valvular heart disease; systolic murmurs (AI, AS) etc. Austin-Flint murmur, machinery murmur; pericardial friction rub; opening snap of MS etc., the more subtle signs of subacute infective endocarditis, petechial and splinter haemorrhages, Osler’s nodes, clubbing, Roth’s sports etc., the cardiomyopathies (congested, including peripartum cardiac failure, restrictive, endomyocardial fibrosis; hypertrophic).

 

MED 602: Respiratory Medicine II                        

Carcinoma of the lungs, cryptogenic fibrosingalveolitis, the pneumoconioses. Pulmonary Embolism; Sarcoidosis

 

MED 603: Gastroenterology II                               

Differential diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease, cholecystitis and pancreatitis leading to a consideration of diagnostic procedure of help, e.g. laboratory tests, cholecystogram, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP),   chronic active hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, Crohn’s diseases and ulcerative colitis

 

MED 604: Nephrology II                            

Immune-complex-mediated kidney disease (e.g. quartan malarial nephropathy), obstructive uropathy.

 

MED 605: Rheumatology / Care of the Elderly2

The sero-negative arthritides the sero-positive arthritides, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, enteropathicarthropathy, osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease). The connective tissue disorders: systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), mixed connective tissue disease, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, giant cell arteritis, lessons on rehabilitation, physiological and psychosocial changes in old age, medical and surgical diseases of the elderly, psychiatric disorders of the elderly, nutrition in the elderly, competence and forensic issues in the elderly.

 

MED 606: Special Topics and Neurology II          

This is the final medicine posting.  The objective should be to consolidate what the medicine and psychiatry student had already learnt in the previous postings, but additional topics should also be covered. Autonomic neuropathy, Peripheral neuropathy, Viral infections of CNS, Cerebral abscess, Demyelinating disease, Epilepsy, Cord compression, Brain tumours, subacute combined degeneration etc.

 

MED 607: Dermatology II

Filariasis and Guinea worm disease; Eczema/dermatitis; Leprosy and other granulomas; Skin manifestations of systematic disorders

 

MED 608: Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine II

Diabetes Mellitus II; Disorders of nutrition in the adult; Endocrine disorders of ovaries and testes; Intersex

 

DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY

Philosophy

To produce medical graduates who are able to use current evidence in the assessment, management and control of common obstetric and gynaecological conditions in accordance with world standards and in the context of their practice environment.

Objectives

Broad Objective

  • To produce medical graduates who are able to manage and prevent common obstetric and gynaecological diseases and conditions.
  • Specific Objectives
  • At the end of this posting, the students must be able to:
  • Take clinical history, perform comprehensive examination on patients and order appropriate investigations to diagnose and treat common gynaecological diseases and emergencies.
  • Use culturally-acceptable methods to guide clients to achieve reproductive and sexual health.
  • Take clinical history and perform comprehensive examination in the management of normal pregnancy, labour and puerperium.
  • Take clinical history, perform comprehensive examination on patients and order appropriate investigations to diagnose and treat common obstetric diseases and emergencies.

Revision sessions in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

iii.        apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in Obstetrics and Gynaecology as they relate to healthcare delivery.

 

Course contents

OBG 501: General Gynaecology    

Evaluation of the gynaecologic patient: Gynaecologic history, gynaecologic physical examination, and common laboratory tests in gynaecology, imaging techniques, surgical evaluation in gynaecology. Paediatrics gynaecology: congenital anomalism of the female genital tract, intersex disorders, acquired gynaecological disorders of childhood. Uninary disorders: Genuine stress incontinence, detrusor instability, overflow incontinence and functional incontinence, fistulae (vesico-vaginal) fistulae, vesico-rectal fistulae, uretero-vaginal fistulae. Endometriosis and adenomyosis, chronic pelvic pain, genital tract injuries (dilatation & curettage-box), acquired gynaetresia, intermenstral, post coital and post menopausal bleeding, ectopic gestation, displacements of the female genital tract.

 

OBG 502: Endocrinology/Reproductive Health /Infertility 

The menstrual cycle and associated disorders: the menstrual cycle, primary amenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, galactorrhoea, hirsutism, polycystic ovarian disease, intermenstrual, postcoitaland postmenopausal bleeding, the climacteric.Sexuality: physiology of coitus, female sexual dysfunction, male sexual dysfunction, rapeInfertility: epidemiology of infertility, male infertility, assisted reproductive techniques. Pelvic infection: the sexually transmitted organisms, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, other pelvic infection

Induced abortions: abortion, legal & illegal (induced) abortions. Contraception and family planning: general considerations, oral hormonal contraception, intrauterine contraceptive device, surgical contraception (female, male) long acting hormonal contraception, barrier methods of contraception, periodic abstinence.

 

OBG 503: Gynaecological Oncology                  

Lesions of the Vulva: Benign lesions of the vulva, pre-malignant lesions of the vulva, malignant lesions of the vulva, pruritus vulvae. Disease of the vagina: vaginal discharge, benign lesions of the vagina, pre-malignant lesions, malignant lesions of the vagina. Disorders of the cervix: benign lesions of the cervix, pre-malignant lesions of the cervix, malignant lesions of the cervix. Disorders of the Uterus: benign lesions of the uterus, pre-malignant lesions of the uterus. Disorders of the Ovary: ovarian neoplasms, evaluation of ovarian neoplasms, management of ovarian tumours. Gestational trophoblastic tumours: hydatidiform mole, chorioncarcinoma.  Chemotherapy and radiotherapy in gynaecologic practice: chemotherapy in genital cancer, radiotherapy in genital cancer.

 

OBG 504: Gynaecology Clinics/Simulation training         

Approach to the gynaecological patient in the clinic. Symptoms and clinical signs in gynaecology. History taking in gynaecology. General physical examination. Pelvic examination. Clinic based procedures – Pap smears, high vaginal swabs, cryosurgery, transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography, diagnostic hysteroscopy, colposcopy, hysterosalpingography.

 

OBG 505: Obstetrics Clinics/Simulation training

Approach to the obstetric client in the antenatal clinic. Health education of the pregnant woman. Registration/ booking of the pregnant woman. History taking in the pregnant woman. General physical examination. Physical examination of the pregnant uterus and its contents. Routine laboratory investigations. Clinical pelvimetry. Risk assessment of a pregnancy. Special clinical procedures: obstetric ultrasonography, Pap smears, chorionic villus sampling, X-ray pelvimetry. The postnatal clinic.

 

OBG 506: Antenatal care/Foetal Medicine

Protocol for antenatal care, nutrition in pregnancy, lie, presentation, position, attitude, engagement of the foetus, the maternal pelvis, imaging in obstetrics, screening for congenital anomalies, prenatal diagnosis, drug use in pregnancy.

Foetal growth and development, antenatal assessment of the foetus, intrapartum foetal assessment, intrauterine foetal death (IUFD), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), foetal macrosomia, pregnancy and labour in anencephalic and hydrocephalic foetuses, rhesus isoimmunisation, acute foetal distress, disorders of the placenta, umbilical cord and liquor, the new born infant, examination of the new born, asphyxia neonatorum, other disorder and disease of the newborn, birth injuries.

 

OBG 507: Complications in Pregnancy/ Medical disorders in pregnancy

Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage: Placenta previa, antepartum haemorrhage: placental abruption, preterm labour & delivery, cervical incompetence, premature rupture of membranes, cord prolapse, multifetal pregnancy, breech presentation, unstable lie. Anaemia in pregnancy, heart disease in pregnancy, malaria in pregnancy, heart disease in pregnancy, diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium, human immune-deficiency virus (HIV)/ AIDS in pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (Pathophysiology), the haemoglobinopathies in pregnancy, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), obesity in pregnancy, vomiting in pregnancy, liver diseases in pregnancy, viral infections in pregnancy, other medical disorders in pregnancy, surgical disorders in pregnancy.

 

OBG   508: Labour and its Complications /operative Obstetrics/puerperium and its abnormalities /Safe Motherhood                    

Physiology of labour, management of labour including the use of the partogram, induction of labour, prolonged labour, foeto-pelvic disproportion and obstructed labour, face, brow presentations and other malpositions, obstetric injuries, uterine rupture, Obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia, instrumental delivery: forceps, instrumental delivery: vacuum, instrumental delivery: destructive operations, symphysiotomy, caesarean delivery

Management of the puerperium, episiotomy, postpartum haemorrhage, retained placenta, placenta accrete and acute uterine inversion, sudden postpartum collapse, puerperal pyrexia, upper genital tract infection, post partum contraception.

Safe motherhood initiative, maternal mortality in Nigeria, age and reproductive outcome, parity and reproductive outcome.

 


DEPARTMENT OF PAEDIATRICS

Philosophy

To produce graduates with adequate knowledge of Paediatrics and Child Health to function as doctors nationally and internationally, and have the competence to diagnose and manage childhood illness and emergencies

Objective

Broad Objective

  • To produce socially-responsive graduates with adequate competences in paediatrics to diagnose and treat common childhood diseases and emergencies.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  • Take a detailed history to elicit symptoms from patients with childhood illnesses.
  • Perform a physical examination on the patients in order to elicit clinical signs.
  • Formulate relevant differential diagnosis on the basis of history and physical signs.
  • Order appropriate investigations to refute or confirm diagnosis.
  • Carry out simple common side-lab investigations.
  • Formulate management plan.
  • Participate in the community approach to patient care, disease prevention and immunisations.
  • Participate in growth and development monitoring and evaluation of the child.

 

MODE OF DELIVERY

Combinations of the following teaching methods:

Lectures, Tutorials, Bedside clinical teaching, Clinical demonstrations, Chart review meetings, Grand rounds, Clinical teaching, social paediatrics and home visits.

ASSESSMENT METHODS

MCQs, SAQs, Bedside Clinical Evaluation, OSCEs

Revision sessions in Paediatrics

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

  1. Apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in Paediatrics as they relate to healthcare delivery.

 

Course Content

PAE 501:Course Content Introduction to Paediatrics

Lectures/Tutorials: The aim is to provide the students with basic knowledge of the discipline for general practice. These lectures cover a wide range of selected topics in paediatrics to include general principles and practice of paediatrics, preventive paediatrics, growth and development (from infancy to adolescence) and pathological states in paediatrics in all systems.

Clinical Paediatrics: The art of paediatric patient clerking is taught in the outpatient clinics and in the wards. A student should be expected to clerk and if possible present at least 6 cases per posting. Instructions in diagnostic and therapeutic skills and clinical procedures i.e. venopuncture, setting up of intravenous infusions, performance of lumbar punctures, resuscitation of patients in respiratory or cardiac failure, bone marrow aspiration, exchange blood transfusions. Each student is expected to perform simple laboratory procedures like CSF, urine and stool microscopy and chemistry and therapeutic and diagnostic skill including basic principle of Radiology, other imaging techniques on specimens obtained from his/her patient. The student, on ward round day, should present the patient he/she clerked to the Consultant and follow up the patient’s progress till discharge. He/she is also expected to write a discharge summary.

 

PAE 502:Nutrition, Growth and Development

Attendance at the Nutrition Clinic is compulsory for instruction on the nutritional needs of normal children and those with disorders like protein-energy-malnutrition, marasmus, micronutrient deficiencies. Technical skills of anthropometry are taught and instructions on the use and value of the growth charts and on factors affecting growth and development of children are highlighted: Anthropometry, Factors affecting growth and development, Failure to thrive babies and causes, Puberty, Adolescence and its problem.

Rights of the Child: Initiation of Sexual activity, sexual violence and abuse. Harmful practices – Female Genital mutilation, Forced Early Marriage and puberty initiation rites. Convention on the Rights of the Child. National Policy on Adolescent Health. Peculiar problem of the Girl Child. HIV/AIDS: Neonatal infection; primary, asymptomatic or symptomatic infections; paediatric dermatology; prevention and control.

 

PAE 503:Child Health and Primary Care

Students should visit Child Health Clinics and are instructed on the care of healthy infants. They also must pay visit to the Under Five Clinics (NPI). There they are also expected to individually perform such function as: immunization procedure, assessment of nutritional status of children, anthropometry, and giving nutritional advice to mothers, assessment of status of children. Seminars are conducted on environmental and social factors related to child health. Students are also introduced to prevention and management of physical and mental handicap in children. Others include:

Poisons and Accidents, kerosene ingestion, household accidents, drug poisoning, bites. Child Health: immunization in general for the Nigerian child, under five clinics (NPI), weaning – normal and abnormal habits.

 

PAE 504: Miscellaneous: the Cardiovascular and Respiratory System

Examination of the CVS. Congenital heart diseases, acquired heart diseases. Heart failure in infancy and childhood, acute infections of the respiratory tract and chronic respiratory conditions: bronchial asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, the wheezing child, congenital anomalies of the tract.

 

PAE 505: Genitourinary System and Gastro-Intestinal Tract

Acute diarrhoea and vomiting. Chronic diarrhoea. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance, ORT. Jaundice, Hepatitis. Intestinal Parasites. Abdominal pain, Malabsorption, GIT bleeding. Developmental and structural anomalies of the genitourinary Tract. Urinary tract infections. Glomerulonephritis. Nephrotic syndrome and renal failure (acute, chronic).

 

 

PAE 506: Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, Diabetes mellitus and hypoglycaemia, rickets. Precocious puberty and delayed puberty.

 

PAE 507: Diseases of the CNS, Muscles and Bones

Acute infections, meningitis, encephalitis etc. Hydrocephalus: causes, complications. Microcephalus: causes complications. Convulsions in infancy and childhood. Coma and Cerebral Palsy. Mental subnormality. Pyomyositis and progressive muscle diseases.

 

PAE 508: Diseases of the Blood

Anaemia in infancy and childhood. Haemoglobinopathies. Leukaemia. Bleeding disorders.

 

PAE 509: Specific Infections and Genetics

Measles, pertussis, mumps. Malaria. Tuberculosis, Salmonellosis, Schistosomiasis. Autosomal recessive inheritance, autosomal dominant inheritance. X-linked dominant inheritance, X-linked recessive inheritance. Chromosomal abnormalities, genetic investigations and counselling.

 


PAE 510: Paediatrics Oncology

Burkitts tumor. Nephroblastoma. Neuroblastoma. Hepatoblastoma. CNS Tumors and Reticulo-endothelial malignancies.

 

PAE 511: Neonatology

Students should spend some time (7 – 14 days) in the Newborn Unit to acquaint themselves with the problems of the newborn infant – normal and abnormal-and prevention of these: Normal newborn, preterm, small-for-date post term baby, jaundice in the newborn, haemorrhagic disease in newborn, respiratory problems in newborn and neonatal infections: Sepsis, Meningitis, Tetanus.

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY

To produce medical graduates who appreciate the psychological aspects of health, and are able to diagnose and manage common mental health disorders, especially in primary care and non-psychiatric institutions.

Objectives

Broad Objectives

  • To provide students with adequate knowledge of basic psychology and its relevance to medical practice in general and psychiatry in particular.
  • To introduce students to the assessment and care of patients with mental disorders.
  • To produce students who understand the psychological aspects of medical/physical disorders.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, students should be able to:

  • Identify and differentiate between the various theoretical approaches to the study of psychology and appreciate the contributions of each approach to behavioural research.
  • State the applications of psychology to the practice of medicine. Understand the different concepts of normality and name major psychopathological conditions.
  • Understand human cognitive and personality development across the lifespan.
  • Identify and describe the mechanisms underlying different cognitive mental functions – intelligence, thinking, sensation, perception, learning and memory.
  • Understand the factors that determine human behaviour – motivation, emotion, social factors.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the broad classes and etiological factors of mental disorders.
  • Acquire appropriate knowledge and skills of history taking, clinical examination and management of common psychiatric disorders and emergencies in all age groups.
  • Acquire appropriate communicative skills required for managing mental health problems.
  • Demonstrate understanding of the relationship between mental and physical health.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the relevant Nigerian laws related to mental health care and other legal issues related to the mentally-ill.
  • Identify and determine appropriate interventions for substance use disorders.
  • Identify and determine appropriate referral points at various levels of health care for patients with psychiatric disorders.

 

Revision sessions in Psychiatry

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

  1. Apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in Psychiatry as they relate to healthcare delivery.

 

Course contents

Introduction: Historical and Theoretical Trends in Psychiatry

Psychology: Psychology as a science, application of basic psychology principles in medical practice, concepts of normality, ego defence mechanisms.  Biopsychosocial Approach to Human Medicine Summary of general living systems, theory and its application to psychiatry and general medicine, maintenance of steady states, adjustment processes.  Biopsychosocial adaptation – predisposing and precipitating factors for mental disorders.

General adult psychiatry Psychiatric history and mental status examination; psychopathology, classification of psychiatric disorders; aetiology of mental disorders; presentation and management of affective, anxiety, neurotic and stress- related disorders, personality, sleep and psychosexual disorders; psychiatric emergencies; psychopharmacology and other physical treatments; psychotherapy.

Child psychiatry Psychiatric history and mental status examination of children; presentation and management of child psychiatric disorders; presentation and management of child and adolescent mental discords in special settings; dealing with children of parents with mental disorders

Old age psychiatry Assessment of functioning in old age; presentation and management of common psychiatric disorders in the elderly; the dementias and other organic disorders of the elderly; co-morbid physical and mental disorders in old age.

Other topics in psychiatry: The brain in mental disorders; neuropsychiatric disorders; consultation-liaison psychiatry; consultation-liaison child and old-age psychiatry; forensic psychiatry: mental health legislation, capacity and consent; alcohol and substance use disorders.

Mental health in the community: Mental health promotion and prevention; presentation and management of common psychiatric disorders in primary care; community old age and child psychiatry; public health aspects of mental health; mental health services; principles and practice of community psychiatry; sociology of health and illness- issues related to societal beliefs, knowledge attitudes, stigmatization and poverty; influence of culture on the presentation and management of mental disorders; alternate healing practices, principles and practice of rehabilitation psychiatry.

 

SPECIAL SURGICAL POSTINGS

Clinical clerkship in the special surgical departments will be done during the 400L Special Posting I (SPI) and 600L Special Posting II (SP II). Additional lectures will be given during 300L Clinical Application of Basic Medical Sciences Lecture series and 400L Core Lectures.

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF ANAESTHESIA

Departmental Philosophy

The aim of these postings is to produce medical graduates who are able to provide Basic Life Support (BLS), and possess adequate understanding of worldwide standard anaesthetic practice. These medical graduates must be competent in the effective management of acute and chronic pain.

Objectives

Broad Objective

  • Equip the medical student with basic resuscitative skills of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
  • Introduce students to basic anaesthetic techniques employed in surgery, pain management and other diagnostic/therapeutic procedures.
  • Strengthen student’s previous knowledge of anaesthetic techniques.

Specific Objectives

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  • Diagnose cardiac arrest.
  • Initiate measures to resuscitate the victim.
  • Perform effective CPR.
  • Advise on further care of the victim after resuscitation.
  • Provide peri-operative care.
  • Recognize high-risk surgical patients.
  • Assess and manage acute and chronic pain.
  • Manage common complications of anaesthesia.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of accepted standards for labour anaesthesia.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of basic principles of critical care.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the best quality of care for patients with life-limiting illnesses (Palliative Care).

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF OPHTHALMOLOGY

Departmental Philosophy

To produce medical graduates who meet up with global standards in the medical knowledge of ophthalmology, and are competent in the diagnosis and management of common ophthalmic emergencies and diseases.

Objectives

Broad Objective

  • To produce socially responsive medical graduates who meet up with global standards in the knowledge of ophthalmology, and are competent to diagnose and treat common ophthalmological diseases and emergencies.
  • To equip the student with necessary skills to manage an ophthalmic patient.
  • To further equip the student with necessary skills to clinically evaluate an ophthalmic patient and suggest appropriate management modalities.

 

1st Posting – Clinical Application of Basic Medical Sciences (300L 1stSemester)

Specific Objective

At the end of this posting, the student should be able to:

  • Understand the relationship between basic clinical sciences and ophthalmology using their background knowledge of applied anatomy, physiology and pathology of the eye.
  • Take appropriate history in a patient with ophthalmic diseases.
  • Perform visual acuity measurement accurately.
  • Confidently perform a pen torch examination of the anterior segment of the eye.
  • Carry out fundoscopy to identify normal and abnormal posterior pole of the eye.
  • Request for the appropriate investigations to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Diagnose common ophthalmic conditions and major blinding eye diseases.
  • Confidently evaluate an ophthalmic patient and suggest treatment for common and rare ophthalmic conditions.
  • Evaluate a patient with neurophthalmic and visual pathway diseases.
  • Demonstrate good knowledge of imaging modalities in ophthalmology.

 

DEPARTMENT OF OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY

Clinical clerkships in the department of otorhinolaryngology will be undertaken during a 4-week rotation in 400L (SPI) and a 4-week rotation in 600L (SPII). Additional lectures will be given during 300L Clinical Application of Basic Medical Sciences Lecture series and 400L Core Lectures.

Departmental Philosophy

To produce medical graduates who meet up with world standards in the basic knowledge in otorhinolaryngology, and who are able to diagnose and manage common ORL diseases and emergencies.

Objectives

Broad Objectives

  • To produce socially responsive medical graduates who meet up with global standards in the knowledge of ear, nose and throat, as well as head and neck diseases; and who are competent to diagnose and treat common ophthalmological diseases and emergencies.

Specific objectives

At the end of the posting, the student should be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the basic and applied anatomy, physiology, and pathology of ear nose and throat, head and neck, as well as the clinical correlates in disease state.
  • Demonstrate knowledge and skills to carry out full assessment of ORL patients through history taking, clinical examination, and requisition of relevant laboratory, radiological and other investigations.
  • Formulate lists of differential diagnosis as well as definitive diagnosis.
  • Acquire the basic skills required for the treatment of ear, nose and throat, head and neck problems.
  • Acquire the basic pre-operative and post-operative skills for the care of ORL patient.
  • Reinforce the technique of history taking, physical examination and investigations of ORL diseases.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of basic principles for common surgical procedures in otorhinolaryngological practice.

 

Revision sessions in Special Postings in Surgery

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

  1. Apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in Specific cognate discipline in each special posting as they relate to healthcare delivery.

 

Course Content

SUG 405: Ear, Nose and Throat

The common disorder of the ear, chronic otitis media with discharge, foreign body.

 

SUG 406: Ophthalmology

Essentials of Clinical Ophthalmology, Clerking of Ophthalmic patients and Management of common eye diseases. Highlights on tropical eye diseases, community and preventive perspectives.

 

SUG 407: Orthopaedics

Bone and joint diseases in particular chronic osteomyelitis, tuberculosis and effects of the haemoglobinopathies. The common bone tumours and the bony changes aassociated with other infectious disorders, tropical ulcer, histoplasmosis.52

 

SUG 408: Special Topics in Surgery

Traumatology and problem of road traffic accidents. Care of the severely injured, management of shock, treatment of fractures.

 

ANE 301: Resuscitation Principles and Practice

Airway Management: Anatomy of Airway, cause of obstruction, diagnosis of obstruction, consequences of obstruction, methods of securing and maintaining the airway, diagnosis and Management of Respiratory Insufficiency. Clinical Features. Laboratory investigations e.g. Spirometry, Blood gases. Management e.g. Oxygen therapy and positive pressure ventilation. Circulatory Insufficiency. Factors affecting cardiac output, blood pressure and venous return. Shock and Cardiac standstill.53

 

ANE 302: Clinical in Anaesthesia Diagnosis and Management of Circulatory Insufficiency

Clinical features of shock and cardiac arrest. Management of airway, ventilation, blood volume replacement, control of infection and monitoring devices. Management of ventilation and external cardiac massage and drugs. The Unconscious Patient: Causes of coma with particular reference to anaesthesia, cardinal principles in the immediate management, management of patient in prolonged coma, cerebral function monitoring.

Operative anesthesiology: Preparation of patient, history and examination of patient, routine and special investigations, premedication. Choice of Anaesthesia – general, regional and local, induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, endotracheal anaesthesia. Interaction of drugs, e.g. of anaesthetic agents and drugs for coincidental therapy. Techniques of anaesthesia e.g. inhalational relaxant, spinal epidural, field block, nerve blocks. The effect of anaesthesia on some disease states e.g. diabetes, hypertension with hypertensive heart disease, sickle cell disease, anaemia. Premedication drugs – opiates, anxiolytic and sedatives. General anaesthetic agents: Induction agents – thiopentonepropanidid, diazepam, ketamine, inhalational agents – ether, halothane, trichlo-retylene, ethylchloride, adjuvants - muscle relaxants, anticholinesterases, NaHCO3, adrenaline, calcium gluconate and chloride, vasopressors, osmotic diuretics, local anaesthesia e.g. lignocaine.

 

DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY

Philosophy

To produce graduates who have adequate knowledge, attitudes, values and skills in Surgery for clinical practice, and are equipped for life-long professional learning.

Broad Objective

  • To produce competent professionals equipped with adequate knowledge of Surgery to undertake evidence-based clinical management of common surgical disorders and emergencies.
  • Specific Objective
  • At the end of the posting, the students should be able to:
  • Apply knowledge of the core and basic medical sciences to the pathogenesis and principles of management of surgical diseases and disorders.
  • Demonstrate competence in history taking and physical examination of patients with general surgical diseases.
  • Formulate appropriate differential diagnosis.
  • Order appropriate investigations to confirm diagnosis.
  • Perform simple side room investigations.
  • Demonstrate skills in management of common surgical procedures.
  • Acquire skills in the performance of common surgical procedures.

 


Revision sessions in Surgery

Specific objective:

At the end of the revision exercise, the student should be able to:

Apply, analyse and evaluate the competences in Surgery as they relate to healthcare delivery.

 

SUG 501: Introduction to Clinical Surgery

History and physical examination of the surgical patient. Physical signs in clinical surgery. Pre-operative preparation and post-operative care of patients. HIV-AIDS and the Surgeon, Universal Precautions, Safe Surgery, Multi-disciplinary Health Care Team approach

 

600 LEVEL

SUG 601: General Surgery                         

Principles of surgery, Herniae, Lumps, Solid tumors, benign and malignant; ulcers. Thyroid disease, goitre, and other endocrine abnormalities. Gastrointestinal pathology, conditions associated with herniae, gangrenous bowel, peritonitis, intra-abdominal abscess and fistula. Hepato-biliary disease; Congenital malformations and their management.

 

SUG 602: Paediatric Surgery         

Congenital anomalies particularly the more manageable lesions of the gut, exomphalos, atresia and anorectal agenesis of the lower urinary tract: club foot and other obvious skeletal deformities.

 

SUG 603: Plastic Surgery and Burns

Symptoms and signs of common lesions in plastic and reconstructive surgery, including their interpretations.  Introduction to principles of management of common lesions in plastic and reconstructive surgery (ulcers, burns and skin grafts.) including relevant investigations, treatment and treatment complications.

 

SUG 604: Cardiothoracic Surgery including vascular  

Symptoms and signs of common lesions in cardiothoracic and vascular surgery, including their interpretations. Introduction to principles of management of common lesions in cardiothoracic surgery including relevant investigations, treatment and complications. Congenital malformations and their management.

 

SUG 605: Urology                

Diseases that cause obstructive uropathy (urethral stricture, benign prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer) and its complications (upper tract obstruction, hydronephrosis, renal failure and fistulae), haematuria and its causes, non-prostatic benign and malignant urological tumours, acute and chronic urological infections, hydrocoele, neuro-urology and urological complications of systemic diseases, introduction to renal transplantation.

Paediatric urology Congenital malformations (e.g. Hypospadias, epispadias, bladder extrophy, posterior urethral valves), Wilm’s tumours, urinary tract infections, reflux disease,

 

SUG 606: Neurosurgery  

Head injury and spinal trauma, common surgical intracranial disorders as well as spinal cord lesions. congenital malformations and their management.

 

SUG 607: Ear, Nose and Throat                

Diagnosis and differentials of both common and uncommon ontological diseases/emergencies; and the surgical principles of management, postoperative complication, and knowledge of various preventive measures for otological diseases.

Diagnosis and differentials of both common and uncommon rhinological diseases/emergencies; and the surgical principles of management, postoperative complication, and knowledge of various preventive measures for rhinological diseases.

Diagnosis and differentials of both common and uncommon laryngological, head and neck diseases/emergencies; and the surgical principles of management, postoperative complications, and knowledge of various preventive measures for laryngological head and neck diseases.

 

SUG 608: Ophthalmology               

Essentials of Clinical Ophthalmology, Clerking of Ophthalmic patients and Management of common eye diseases. Measurement of Visual Acuity, Refractive Errors, Visual Handicaps. Avoidable blindness; diseases of the retina and optic nerve; diseases of the orbit, including the lacrimal apparatus; diseases of the cornea and uvea; diseases of the eyelid and conjunctiva; Common ophthalmic pathogens, ocular inflammations and pathologic basis of ophthalmic disease.  The red eye, painful/painless acute visual loss, trauma, hyphema.  The eye as window to the body.  Occularmanisfestations of systemic diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus , hypertension, AIDS). Major blinding diseases and their management (glaucoma, trachoma, cataracts, onchocerciasis); The Global Initiative, Vision 2020, IAPB, ICO.

 

 

SUG 609: Orthopaedics                   

Bone and joint diseases in particular chronic osteomyelitis, tuberculosis and effects of the haemoglobinopathies.  The common bone tumours and the bony changes associated with other infectious disorders, tropical ulcer, histoplasmosis.

 

SUG 610: Special Topics in Surgery                                              

Traumatology and problem of road traffic accidents. Care of the severely injured, management of shock, tre

BASIC ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

Candidates to be admitted into the degree programmes must possess a good score at the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME).  In addition candidates must possess credit passes in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and English language at the SSCE, WASC, GCE ‘O’ level, NECO or its equivalent as determined from time to time by the senate of the university.