Department Of Natural Science Courseware


INTRODUCTION TO PLANT FORM AND FUNCTIONS

General morphology of flowering plants.

The root

The stem

The leaf

The flower

The fruit

The seed


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-2:        Introduction to the concept of cell, genetics and cell physiology

 Week 3-4:       History, Location of the cell and the Constituents of a cell


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-:          Factors Affecting Aquatic Ecosystems

Week 2 :          soil, edaphic factors, formation of soil, soil erosion

Week 3:           interactions among populations

Week 4:           aquatic ecosystem and factors affecting the ecosystem

Week 5            biomes of the world, examples of habitat in the different biomes

Week 6:           behavioural ecology, why animals behave the way they do.

Week 12          revision


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 6:           History, Location of the cell and the Constituents of a cell

Week 7:           Uses and functionalities of RNA and DNA, types of RNA and the strategic functions of both

Week 8:           The basic structure of DNA and RNA, double helix, similarities and differences between RNA  and DNA

Week 9:           Bioenergetics, definition, types of bioenergeticss, uses and functionalities,

Week 10:         Membrane Biology, definition, constituents and advantages

Week 11:         Test

Week 12:         Revision


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Weeks 1-2: Introduction and Biochemical aspects of endocrinology, structures and function  
Weeks  3-4: Evolution  of  hormone  action,  classes  of  hormones,  intercellular  mediators  of hormones, hormone receptors, binding activity and response
Weeks  5-6: Molecular  mechanisms  of  actions  of  steroids,  thyroid  and  polypeptide  hormones,  kinetics of binding mode of action of hormones, cAMP as second messenger, role of calcium and  other ions
Weeks  7-8: Amino  acid  derived  hormones,  steroid  hormones  and  polypeptide  hormones. Hormone agonists and…
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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1-2: pH and pka
Week 3 - 4: Buffers and their biological importance
Week 5-8: Biochemistry of amino acids
Week 9-11: Bichemistry of lipids  
Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:  
Week 1-2:  Introduction to the concept of microbiology.
Week 3-4: Concept of historical aspect: emphasis on different group of microbes.
Week 5:   Introduction to the scope of microbiology.
Week  6-7: Introduction  to  the  concept  of  pasteurization  and  fermentation  and  discussion of their application.
Week  8-9  Compare  and  contrast  the  different  key  discoveries  in  the  field  of  microbiology, understanding their limitations.
Week 10-11: Projects.
Week 12 Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:  
Week 1-2:  Introduction to concept of microbial cell structure.
Week 3-4 Concept of cell structure: emphasis on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell
structure.
Week 5: Introduction to the microbial growth.
Week  6-7:  Compare  and  contrast  the  different  phases  of  microbial  growth,
understanding the factors that affect microbial growth.
Week  8-9:  Introduction  to  the  concept  of  microbial  role  in  soil,  food  and
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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1-2:  Introduction to concept of microbial ecology.
 Week 3-4 Concept of ecological theory: emphasis on microbes.
Week 5: Introduction to the microbial interaction.
Week  6-7:  Compare  and  contrast  the  different  types  of  microbial  interactions,
understanding the advantages and disadvantages of each type.
Week 8-9 Introduction to the concept of adaptation and discussion of the various
forms of adaptation: physiological, biological, morphological and genetic.
Week 10-11: Projects.
Week 12 Revision


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At the completion of this course, students are expected to:

  • Understand the reason for classification of living organism
  • Understand the evolutionary relationships among groups of plants
  • Be able to practically Classify common plants around

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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1-2:  Plants – structures and functions; Plants and their adaptations to environment
Week 3- The general morphology of flowering plants
Week 5-6: plant hormones
Week 7-8: Plant tissues  
Week  9 Anatomy  of  flowering  plants- origin  and  development  of  primary  and  secondary  plant
body.
Week 10 Physiology of flowering plants
Week 11: Plant metabolic pathways.
Week 12 Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1: Introduction to insect biology,
Week 2: Insect-organism interaction and insect association with man
Week 3-5: Basic biological principles of insects with reference to medical
and veterinary importance.
Week 6-9: Systematics, morphology, biology, life cycles and distributions
of insects, mites and ticks,
Week 10-11: Behaviour and ecology of social insects
Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1: Principles of aquatic biology with particular reference to
limnology
Week 2: Physical and chemical properties of water and their biological
significance
Week 3: Thermal stratification of lakes, Tides, waves and currents and
their effects on substratum
Week 4: Inter-tidal fauna and water quality parameters
Week 5: Eutrophic and oligotrophic lakes, fresh water communities
Week 6-9: Factors influencing the distribution and productivity of aquatic
macrophytes, phytoplankton, benthic algae, zooplankton, benthos and nekton in fresh water, brackish/estuarine water…
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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1: Basics of categorization of research studies
Week 2: How to design a ground breaking study and, understanding the principles of conducting ethical research
Week 3: Bio-statistical concepts and reasoning
Week 4: Introduction and survey of data and data types
Week 5: Sampling techniques, Frequency distributions, Measures of central tendency and dispersion
Week 6-7: Methods for performing inference on population means and proportions via sample data; sample size and statistical power, statistical hypotheses testing and its application…
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COURSE DETAILS:

Weeks 1 and 2: Qualitative analysis of proteins

Week 3: Qualitative analysis of amino acids

Week 4: Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates

Week 5: Qualitative analysis of lipids

Week 6: Qualitative analysis of nucleic acids

Week 7: Qualitative analysis of enzymes

Weeks 8 and 9: Quantitative determination of glucose by iodine oxidation in alkaline conditions

Week 9 and 10: Determination of ascorbic acid using 2, 5 dichlorophenol indophenols

Week 11: Estimation of amino acids by formal titration

Week 12:…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Amino acids as building blocks of proteins, amino acid sequence of proteins, covalent backbone of proteins

Week 2:Chemistry/structure/Reactions/classification of amino acids, Properties of the peptide bond

Week 3: Levels of organisation of proteins.Protein isolation, fractionation, purification and characterization

Week 4: Biological functions of proteins.Genomeorganization.Evidence for DNA as the carrier of genetic information

Weeks 5 and 6: Purines and pyrimidines, Nucleoside and Nucleotide Structure and Nomenclature

Weeks 7 and 8:Abnormalities in nucleic acid metabolism, Structure of RNA…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Degradation and digestion of carbohydrate-(sugars), storage polysaccharides and cell walls

Week 2:Introduction to metabolism. Metabolism of amino acids and proteins, including the formation of excretory products

Week 3: Metabolism of lipids; fatty acids and triglyceride degradation; lipoproteins; membranes and membrane structure (elementary introduction

Week 4: Metabolism of carbohydrates: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway.Cori cycle, Calvin pathway, glycogenesis/Glycogenolysis

Week 5: Entry of fructose, galactose and other hexoses into the glycolytic pathway

Week 6:Uronic acid pathway with…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1:An introduction to biochemical information flow, strategies of signaling (physical and chemical) presented in a hierarchical fashion

Week 2:Hormones and neurotransmitters as chemical mediators of signals in plant and animals

Week 3:An outline of the physiological action of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, insulin, Parathyroid hormone, estrogens and androgens

Weeks 4 and 5:Ligand-gated nerve of nerve impulse (action potential, acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters e.g. GABA serotonin, norepinephrine).

Weeks 6 and 7: Signal transduction cascades to highlight the roles of…
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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-2:   Cellular ultra-structure:chromosome structure and gene expression

Week 3-4:  Central dogma of molecular biology, DNA and RNA polymerase in

prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Week 5-6:   A more comprehensive study of the pathway of biological information

transfer processes comprising detailed analysis of replication, transcription and translation

Week 7-8:   Histones and molecular chaperones, prokaryotic gene expression and

control (lac operon, trp operon), Eukaryotic gene expression and control.

Week 9-10: DNA damage and repair, DNA damaging agents, types…
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Week 1-2:            Reaction orders, first, second, third and zero order reactions.

Week 3:               High-energy compounds; chemical potentials, electrochemical

potentials

Week 4-5:            Electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation

Week 6-7:             Regulation of ATP production, Biological oxidation-reduction

reactions

Week 8:               Buffers and buffer systems

Week 9:               Catalysis and activation energy

Week 10-11:        Chemical transport across biological membranes.

Week 12:              Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-2:            Gluconeogenesis, Glyoxylate cycle, Hexose mono-phosphate

shunt

Week 3-4:           Biosynthesis of fatty acid and triglyceride

Week 5-6:           Oxidation of fatty acids, ketogenesis, metabolism ofketone

bodies

Week 7:              Metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids

Week 8:              Metabolism and disorders of acylglycerols and sphingolipids

Week 9:              Lipid transport and storage disorders of lipids (hyperlipidemia,

atherosclerosis, obesity).

Week 10-11:       Cholesterol biosynthesis/catabolism/regulation, Biosynthesis of

prostaglandins.

Week 12:             Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-2:   Hydrogen ion concentration with emphasis on buffers and the ionisable

groups of amino acids

Week 3-4:   Quantitative determination of glucose and other reducing sugars using

Somogyi Nelson method, glucose oxidase method, O`toluidine method

Week 5-6:   Methods of cell fractionation, enzyme purification and kinetic

characterisation of an enzyme

Week 7-8:   Methods of separation of proteins using chromatography techniques,

centrifugation

Week 9-10: Methods of protein quantification; spectrophotometry

Week 11:    Experimental approach to the study of plasma…
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Week 1:      Enzymes, enzymes as catalyst, general characteristics, nomenclature and nature of enzymes

Week 2:      Structural organization; active site, nature of active site, enzyme

kinetics

Week 3:      Isolation, purification and characterisation of enzymes

Week 4:      Measurement of enzyme activity

Week 5-6:   Mechanisms of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Effects of temperature,

pH, ions and inhibitors on enzyme catalysed reactions.

Week 7:      MichaelisMenton equation allosteric/regulatory enzymes.     

Week 8:      Estimation of kinetic parameters- enzyme activities, Km, Vmax, Ki etc.

Zymogen activation, digestive enzymes…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Introduction to separation techniques in Biochemistry

Week 2:The principles, procedures, and application of centrifugation, chromatography, electrophoresis and analytical techniques

Weeks 3 and 4:The principles, instrumentation, and application of manometry and photometry (Spectrophotometry, Spectrofluorimetry and flame photometry)

Weeks 5 and 6:The principles, instrumentation, and application ofcalorimetry, optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

Weeks 7 and 8: The principles, instrumentation and application of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance

Week 9: pH measurements

Weeks 10 and 11: Isotopes in Biochemistry


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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Detailed treatment of metabolism of amino acids degradation and biosynthesis

Week 2: Inborn errors of metabolism. The urea cycle; metabolism of inorganic nitrogen

Week 3: Disorders of amino acid metabolism

Week 4: Oxidative and Non-oxidative deamination, Transamination and decarboxylation

Week 5: Transamidation, Transport and toxicity of ammonia, Creatine metabolism

Week 6: Polyamines

Week 7: Nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid synthesis/degradation

Week 8: Disorders of nucleotide metabolism.Hyperuricemia& other inborn errors

Week 9: One carbon metabolism, Transmethylation

Week…
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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1:      Biological diversity, genetic diversity and specific diversity

Week 2:      Species of local cereals, local legume species and local fruit tree species

Week 3:      Co-breeding/hybridization processes

Week 4:      Genetic erosion

Week 5:      Utilization and conservation of plant and animal genetic resources

Week 6:      Importance of conserving the biological heritage of plant and animal kingdoms

Week 7:      Development of seed and gene banks, modes of operation of gene banks

Week 8:      Biotechnologically-based alternatives to live…
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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1:      Concepts of immunity, humoral and cellular products of immunity

Week 2:      Cells of the immune system and the lymphoid organs

Week 3:      Natural and acquired immunity, Antigens: Structure and classification

Week 4:      Synthesis, structure and function of immunoglobulins, molecular basis

of antibody diversity

Week 5:      Antigen-antibody reactions, Production, detection and uses of monoclonal antibodies.

Week 6:      The complement system.        

Week 7:      Major Histocompatibility Proteins

Week 8:      Hypersensitivity and allergies

Week 9:      Therapeutic and…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1:Human dietary nutrient requirement and factors affecting the requirements

Week 2:Food habits and intakes

Week 3:Digestion, absorption, metabolism and function of carbohydrates, lipid, proteins and amino acids in mass

Week 4:Consequences of excess and inadequate calorie intake, protein energy malnutrition; Kwashiokor and Marasmus.

Week 5:The vitamins: Their chemistry, metabolism and function, the minerals: their metabolism and function

Week 6:Animal and microbial nutrition,feed formulation, food toxicants and detoxification mechanisms

Weeks 7 and 8:Food stuff: Nutritive and energy values…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Biochemical aspects of endocrinology, hormones, structures and functions

Week 2:Evolution of hormone action, classes of hormones, intercellular mediators of hormones, hormone receptors, binding activity and response

Week 3:Molecular mechanisms of action of steroids, thyroid and polypeptide hormones

Week 4:Kinetics of binding mode of action of hormones, cAMP as second messenger, role of calcium and other ions

Week 5:Amino acid derived hormones, steroid hormones and polypeptide hormones

Week 6:Hormone agonists and partial agonists.Biochemistry and function of insulin,…
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Week 1: Plant water relations – diffusion, permeability, osmosis water potential and its components

Week 2: Absorption of water - Apoplast and Symplast, Passive and active absorption Transpiration types and significance; Stomatal Physiology. Factors affecting transpiration

Week 3: Enzymes – General properties, Nomenclature &Classification, Coenzymes and Cofactors mechanism of action and enzyme regulation

Week 4: Photosynthesis –Radiant energy, Absorption spectrum, Action spectrum, Hill reaction, Red drop and Emerson Enhancement effect; Pigment systems – I and II, Photo electron transport and…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1:Biochemistry of microbial growth: energetics and kinetics of microbial growth

Week 2:A review of general metabolic pathways and application in industrial processes

Week 3:Continuous culture methods, principles and applications

Week 4:Downstream processing in biotechnology and general instrumentation

Week 5:Fermentation- alcoholic, amino acid antibiotics and other secondary metabolites

Week 6:Primary and secondary metabolism.Process evaluation and development.Thechemostat and its application in industrial fermentations

Week 7:Microbial gums and other polymers

Week 8:Over-production of metabolites- amino acids, taste enhancers, vitamins, toxins…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Introduction – scope and division of Horticulture, history of gardening

Week 2: types of Garden – Indoor garden, Public garden, Kitchen garden, Garden Implements and accessories

Week 3: Nursery structures –Nursery beds, propagating frames, hot beds, green house and glass houses.

Week 4: Nursery Management. Preparation of soil mixture. Organic farming

Week 5: Gardens Operation; planting and transplanting, pinching, debudding, defoliation, staking, pruning, mulching and topiary

Week 6: Terrace garden, Rock Garden, Hydroponics, Terrarium, Arches and…
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COURSE DETAILS

Weeks 1 and 2: Food constituents

Weeks 3 and 4: Basic concepts in food science

Week 5 and 6: Food preservation and processing

Week 7 and 8: Traditional and modern methods of food preservation

Week 9-10: Traditional and modern methods of food storage and microbial quality changes

Week 11: Storage of foods and microbial quality changes

Week 12: Revision.


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COURSE DETAILS

Weeks 1 and 2: Culturing of microorganisms; preparation of media for microbial growth

Weeks 3 and 4: Isolation of pure culture, sub-culturing procedures (streaking, pour plate etc).

Weeks 5 and 6: Staining techniques for differentiation of microorganisms

Weeks 7 and 8: Techniques for enumeration of microorganisms (direct and indirect procedures

Weeks 9, 10 and 11: Identification of microorganisms to include colonial and cellular morphology and biochemical procedures.

Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS

Weeks 1 and 2: Introduction, heritable and non-heritable characteristics

Weeks 3 and 4: Characteristics and functions of DNA and RNA in the cell

Week 5: Structure of the chromosome

Week 6: Recombination

Week 7: Mutation

Weeks 8 and 9: Brief review: replication, and transduction

Weeks 10 and 11: Brief review: transcription and translation

Week 12: Revision


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Characteristics of soil environment, microbial flora and fauna, Nitrogen cycle, mineral transformation by microorganisms, ecological relationships among pathogens, effect of pesticides on soil microorganisms, biodegradation and biofuels generation, microbiology of rhizosphere


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COURSE DETAILS

Historical aspect of virology, Structure of viruses, viral morphology, General characteristics of plant, animal and bacterial viruses; Cultivation of viruses, Identification of viral particles and cytopathic effects. Virus classification; purification of viruses; viral assay; viral replication, Regulation of lytic development and maintenance of the Lysogenic state in bacteriophages lambda, P2 and 14 single stranded DNA and RNA phage viroid as pathogens.

 


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COURSE DETAILS

Weeks 1 and 2: The distribution, role and significance of micro-organisms in food

Weeks 3 and 4: intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affect microbial growth, food spoilage and food borne diseases

Weeks 5 and 6: Micro-organisms indices of food sanitary growth

Weeks 7 and 8: food microbiology standards

Weeks 9-10: Disease of animal transmittable to man via food products. 

Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1: Cell and its concept: Definition of cell

  • Types of cell, History of cell theory, Cell theory

Week 2: Components of cell.

  • Functions of the various components of cell.

Week 3:Organization of life: Definition

  • Levels of organization of life
  • Advantages and disadvantages of the complexity in higher organisms.

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Role of microorganisms in food, soil. Identification and economic importance of selected microbial groups: Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, Protozoa and Algae. Tools and techniques used in Microbiology. Principles of sterilization and disinfection. Growth of microorganisms including the effect of environmental factors on growth, survival, inhibition and death of microorganism. Biological and biochemical pathways of microorganisms. Nitrogen fixation. Common Infectious Diseases. Antigens and antibodies. Microbial variation and heredity. Problems of infectivity. Antimicrobial agents and sensitivity tests. Gene transfer: Transformation, Transduction,…
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Principles of bacterial taxonomy. Bacterial classification. The morphology, life cycle and biochemical characteristics of bacteria. Systemic study of bacteria and related Prokaryotes: Gram positive cocci, Aerobic Gram positive rods, Aerobic Gram negative bacteria, Anaerobic bacteria, Curved and Spiral- shaped, Gram-negative roads, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Obligate intracellular bacteria. The morphology, life cycle and biochemical characteristics of bacteria. Systematic study of bacteria and other prokaryotes, their nature, characteristics, identification and isolation. Microscopy, growth and nutrition of bacteria. Microbial enzymes. Role of bacteria…
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The general morphology of flowering plants. Plant tissues and growth hormones. Anatomy of flowering plants- origin and development of primary and secondary plant body. Physiology of flowering plants. Plant metabolic pathways.


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Basic research techniques in Biological sciences. These include Spectrophotometry, Chromatography, Manometry, Isotope methods, advanced microscopy (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy); Micrometry, use of microtome; Permanent slides preparation, Plant tissue culture techniques, Sterilization & Culture techniques.


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Origin of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. Tropical bryology and pteridology. Nomenclature of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. Moss flora. General taxonomy and ecology of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. Life cycle of selected groups. Phylogeny, Morphology and Anatomy of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. Economic importance of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. Morphology and Classification of Spurs and Pollen; their stratigraphic and pale environment application.


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Courseware
Themes of ecology: autecology and synecology, historical aspects. Current trends in ecology. Plant community hypotheses. Concepts of ecosystem: food chains, webs, interaction between plants and animals. Ecological groups: hydrophytes, halophytes, xerophytes, epiphytes and mesophytes. The effect of physical environment on plants. Climatic, biotic and topographic factors.A study of Nigerian forests, savannah grass lands and special emphasis on arid zones


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Description identification and classification of medicinal plants. Preparation of Extracts from various organs of plants. Collection and preservation of medicinal plant. Plants used for treating diseases. Indigenous system of Medicine. Importance and relevance of Herbal Medicine. Classification of drugs. Primary and Secondary metabolites. Botanical description and active principles of leaves, flower, fruits, seeds and entire plants used as drugs.
Pharmacognosy – Aim and Scope. Pharmacognosy of some selected herbal products in Nigeria.
Drug Industry – marketing, adulteration, sophistication,…
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Courseware
Meaning and relevance of ethnobotany. Human uses of plants; uses of plants by indigenous cultures. Food plants – plant and plant products of industrial value.
Other economically important plants, cultivation, products, uses, harvesting/extraction and preparation methods of the products: cereals, pulses, fiber plants, timber, rubber, sugar, spices, beverages, pulp, paper, gums, vegetables (root, stem, herbage and fruit vegetables) and fruits (tropical and temperate fruits).


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Microscopy, Culturing of microorganisms; Types and preparation of media for microbial growth.Pure culture techniques and sterilization. Isolation of pure culture, sub-culturing procedures (streaking, pour plate etc.). Dyes and Staining techniques for differentiation of microorganisms. Techniques for enumeration of microorganisms (direct and indirect procedures). Identification of microorganisms to include colonial and cellular morphology and biochemical procedures. Maintenance and preservation of cultures


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Classification, adaptation morphology, Anatomy, Life cycle and other features of interest in the protozoans, Platyhelminthes, nematodes and parasitic arthropods; drawing particular attention to the various adaptations to the drawing of life exhibited by selected members of the group.


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Pinciples of microbial biodeterioration of materials, materials subject to microbial deterioration: foods, jet fuels, paper, paints, textile, leather, metal e.t.c, factors favouring deterioration of materials, major microbial groups involved in deterioration,impact of processing and new technologies on biodeterioration and biodeterioration control


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Fungi morphology. Ecology. Classification and characterization of different fungi phyla. Fungi taxonomy. Epidemiology of fungi and public health related. Economic importance of fungi. Significant fungi in industries and environment. Laboratory study of fungi.


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Introduction. Historical background. Innate and acquired immunity. Antigens, antibodies, cellular immunity. Immunological tolerance and suppression. Surgical grafting. Complement System. Hypersensitivity. Immunological anomalies. Diagnostic immunology, Vaccines, effector systems of parasite killing and nature of resistance in plants


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AEB 214: Invertebrate Animals and their Environments (3 credits)
The systematic inter-relationships and basic organization of the invertebrates, Identification, Phylogeny, biology and economic importance of major phyla, adaptations.


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AEB 211: Introductory Genetics and Cell Physiology: (3 Units)
Cell structure and functions, Chromosome organization, Mendelian Genetics, Linkage and recombination, Sex-linked inheritance, Phylogenic inheritance, DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, Bioenergetics, membrane biology.


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