Department Of Natural Science Courseware


INTRODUCTION TO PLANT FORM AND FUNCTIONS

General morphology of flowering plants.

The root

The stem

The leaf

The flower

The fruit

The seed


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-2:        Introduction to the concept of cell, genetics and cell physiology

 Week 3-4:       History, Location of the cell and the Constituents of a cell


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-:          Factors Affecting Aquatic Ecosystems

Week 2 :          soil, edaphic factors, formation of soil, soil erosion

Week 3:           interactions among populations

Week 4:           aquatic ecosystem and factors affecting the ecosystem

Week 5            biomes of the world, examples of habitat in the different biomes

Week 6:           behavioural ecology, why animals behave the way they do.

Week 12          revision


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 6:           History, Location of the cell and the Constituents of a cell

Week 7:           Uses and functionalities of RNA and DNA, types of RNA and the strategic functions of both

Week 8:           The basic structure of DNA and RNA, double helix, similarities and differences between RNA  and DNA

Week 9:           Bioenergetics, definition, types of bioenergeticss, uses and functionalities,

Week 10:         Membrane Biology, definition, constituents and advantages

Week 11:         Test

Week 12:         Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 3:           Mendel’s Laws of inheritance

Week 4:           Linkage and Recombination and possible examples

Week 5:           Sex-linked inheritance, why sex

Week 6:           Phylogenetic Inheritance, application in genetics


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Weeks 1-2: Introduction and Biochemical aspects of endocrinology, structures and function  
Weeks  3-4: Evolution  of  hormone  action,  classes  of  hormones,  intercellular  mediators  of hormones, hormone receptors, binding activity and response
Weeks  5-6: Molecular  mechanisms  of  actions  of  steroids,  thyroid  and  polypeptide  hormones,  kinetics of binding mode of action of hormones, cAMP as second messenger, role of calcium and  other ions
Weeks  7-8: Amino  acid  derived  hormones,  steroid  hormones  and  polypeptide  hormones. Hormone agonists and…
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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1-2: pH and pka
Week 3 - 4: Buffers and their biological importance
Week 5-8: Biochemistry of amino acids
Week 9-11: Bichemistry of lipids  
Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:  
Week 1-2:  Introduction to the concept of microbiology.
Week 3-4: Concept of historical aspect: emphasis on different group of microbes.
Week 5:   Introduction to the scope of microbiology.
Week  6-7: Introduction  to  the  concept  of  pasteurization  and  fermentation  and  discussion of their application.
Week  8-9  Compare  and  contrast  the  different  key  discoveries  in  the  field  of  microbiology, understanding their limitations.
Week 10-11: Projects.
Week 12 Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:  
Week 1-2:  Introduction to concept of microbial cell structure.
Week 3-4 Concept of cell structure: emphasis on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell
structure.
Week 5: Introduction to the microbial growth.
Week  6-7:  Compare  and  contrast  the  different  phases  of  microbial  growth,
understanding the factors that affect microbial growth.
Week  8-9:  Introduction  to  the  concept  of  microbial  role  in  soil,  food  and
discussion of the various microbial groups and their roles. READ MORE Download Staff Profile


COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1-2:  Introduction to concept of microbial ecology.
 Week 3-4 Concept of ecological theory: emphasis on microbes.
Week 5: Introduction to the microbial interaction.
Week  6-7:  Compare  and  contrast  the  different  types  of  microbial  interactions,
understanding the advantages and disadvantages of each type.
Week 8-9 Introduction to the concept of adaptation and discussion of the various
forms of adaptation: physiological, biological, morphological and genetic.
Week 10-11: Projects.
Week 12 Revision


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Intended learning outcomeAt the end of this course, the students should be able to:

  • Define an habitat?
  • Determine the various life forms of plants
  • List and explain the various mode of nutrition
  • Differentiate between autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition

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At the completion of this course, students are expected to:

  • Understand the reason for classification of living organism
  • Understand the evolutionary relationships among groups of plants
  • Be able to practically Classify common plants around

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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1-2:  Plants – structures and functions; Plants and their adaptations to environment
Week 3- The general morphology of flowering plants
Week 5-6: plant hormones
Week 7-8: Plant tissues  
Week  9 Anatomy  of  flowering  plants- origin  and  development  of  primary  and  secondary  plant
body.
Week 10 Physiology of flowering plants
Week 11: Plant metabolic pathways.
Week 12 Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:  
Week 1-2:  Basic research techniques in Biological sciences
Week 3- Spectrophotometry, Chromatography, Manometry, Isotope methods
Week  5-6: Advanced  microscopy  (Scanning  Electron  Microscopy,  Transmission  Scanning
Electron Microscopy
Week 7-8: use of microtome, Permanent slides preparation and Use of Counting chambers
Week 9 Plant tissue culture techniques, Sterilization & Culture techniques.
Week 10 Plant tissue culture techniques, Sterilization & Culture techniques.
Week 11: Plant tissue culture techniques, Sterilization & Culture techniques.. READ MORE Download Staff Profile


COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1: Introduction to insect biology,
Week 2: Insect-organism interaction and insect association with man
Week 3-5: Basic biological principles of insects with reference to medical
and veterinary importance.
Week 6-9: Systematics, morphology, biology, life cycles and distributions
of insects, mites and ticks,
Week 10-11: Behaviour and ecology of social insects
Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1: Principles of aquatic biology with particular reference to
limnology
Week 2: Physical and chemical properties of water and their biological
significance
Week 3: Thermal stratification of lakes, Tides, waves and currents and
their effects on substratum
Week 4: Inter-tidal fauna and water quality parameters
Week 5: Eutrophic and oligotrophic lakes, fresh water communities
Week 6-9: Factors influencing the distribution and productivity of aquatic
macrophytes, phytoplankton, benthic algae, zooplankton, benthos and nekton in fresh water, brackish/estuarine water…
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COURSE DETAILS:
Week 1: Basics of categorization of research studies
Week 2: How to design a ground breaking study and, understanding the principles of conducting ethical research
Week 3: Bio-statistical concepts and reasoning
Week 4: Introduction and survey of data and data types
Week 5: Sampling techniques, Frequency distributions, Measures of central tendency and dispersion
Week 6-7: Methods for performing inference on population means and proportions via sample data; sample size and statistical power, statistical hypotheses testing and its application…
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COURSE DETAILS:

Weeks 1 and 2: Qualitative analysis of proteins

Week 3: Qualitative analysis of amino acids

Week 4: Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates

Week 5: Qualitative analysis of lipids

Week 6: Qualitative analysis of nucleic acids

Week 7: Qualitative analysis of enzymes

Weeks 8 and 9: Quantitative determination of glucose by iodine oxidation in alkaline conditions

Week 9 and 10: Determination of ascorbic acid using 2, 5 dichlorophenol indophenols

Week 11: Estimation of amino acids by formal titration

Week 12:…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Amino acids as building blocks of proteins, amino acid sequence of proteins, covalent backbone of proteins

Week 2:Chemistry/structure/Reactions/classification of amino acids, Properties of the peptide bond

Week 3: Levels of organisation of proteins.Protein isolation, fractionation, purification and characterization

Week 4: Biological functions of proteins.Genomeorganization.Evidence for DNA as the carrier of genetic information

Weeks 5 and 6: Purines and pyrimidines, Nucleoside and Nucleotide Structure and Nomenclature

Weeks 7 and 8:Abnormalities in nucleic acid metabolism, Structure of RNA…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Degradation and digestion of carbohydrate-(sugars), storage polysaccharides and cell walls

Week 2:Introduction to metabolism. Metabolism of amino acids and proteins, including the formation of excretory products

Week 3: Metabolism of lipids; fatty acids and triglyceride degradation; lipoproteins; membranes and membrane structure (elementary introduction

Week 4: Metabolism of carbohydrates: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway.Cori cycle, Calvin pathway, glycogenesis/Glycogenolysis

Week 5: Entry of fructose, galactose and other hexoses into the glycolytic pathway

Week 6:Uronic acid pathway with…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1:An introduction to biochemical information flow, strategies of signaling (physical and chemical) presented in a hierarchical fashion

Week 2:Hormones and neurotransmitters as chemical mediators of signals in plant and animals

Week 3:An outline of the physiological action of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, insulin, Parathyroid hormone, estrogens and androgens

Weeks 4 and 5:Ligand-gated nerve of nerve impulse (action potential, acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters e.g. GABA serotonin, norepinephrine).

Weeks 6 and 7: Signal transduction cascades to highlight the roles of…
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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-2:   Cellular ultra-structure:chromosome structure and gene expression

Week 3-4:  Central dogma of molecular biology, DNA and RNA polymerase in

prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Week 5-6:   A more comprehensive study of the pathway of biological information

transfer processes comprising detailed analysis of replication, transcription and translation

Week 7-8:   Histones and molecular chaperones, prokaryotic gene expression and

control (lac operon, trp operon), Eukaryotic gene expression and control.

Week 9-10: DNA damage and repair, DNA damaging agents, types…
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Week 1-2:            Reaction orders, first, second, third and zero order reactions.

Week 3:               High-energy compounds; chemical potentials, electrochemical

potentials

Week 4-5:            Electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation

Week 6-7:             Regulation of ATP production, Biological oxidation-reduction

reactions

Week 8:               Buffers and buffer systems

Week 9:               Catalysis and activation energy

Week 10-11:        Chemical transport across biological membranes.

Week 12:              Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-2:            Gluconeogenesis, Glyoxylate cycle, Hexose mono-phosphate

shunt

Week 3-4:           Biosynthesis of fatty acid and triglyceride

Week 5-6:           Oxidation of fatty acids, ketogenesis, metabolism ofketone

bodies

Week 7:              Metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids

Week 8:              Metabolism and disorders of acylglycerols and sphingolipids

Week 9:              Lipid transport and storage disorders of lipids (hyperlipidemia,

atherosclerosis, obesity).

Week 10-11:       Cholesterol biosynthesis/catabolism/regulation, Biosynthesis of

prostaglandins.

Week 12:             Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1-2:   Hydrogen ion concentration with emphasis on buffers and the ionisable

groups of amino acids

Week 3-4:   Quantitative determination of glucose and other reducing sugars using

Somogyi Nelson method, glucose oxidase method, O`toluidine method

Week 5-6:   Methods of cell fractionation, enzyme purification and kinetic

characterisation of an enzyme

Week 7-8:   Methods of separation of proteins using chromatography techniques,

centrifugation

Week 9-10: Methods of protein quantification; spectrophotometry

Week 11:    Experimental approach to the study of plasma…
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Week 1:      Enzymes, enzymes as catalyst, general characteristics, nomenclature and nature of enzymes

Week 2:      Structural organization; active site, nature of active site, enzyme

kinetics

Week 3:      Isolation, purification and characterisation of enzymes

Week 4:      Measurement of enzyme activity

Week 5-6:   Mechanisms of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Effects of temperature,

pH, ions and inhibitors on enzyme catalysed reactions.

Week 7:      MichaelisMenton equation allosteric/regulatory enzymes.     

Week 8:      Estimation of kinetic parameters- enzyme activities, Km, Vmax, Ki etc.

Zymogen activation, digestive enzymes…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Introduction to separation techniques in Biochemistry

Week 2:The principles, procedures, and application of centrifugation, chromatography, electrophoresis and analytical techniques

Weeks 3 and 4:The principles, instrumentation, and application of manometry and photometry (Spectrophotometry, Spectrofluorimetry and flame photometry)

Weeks 5 and 6:The principles, instrumentation, and application ofcalorimetry, optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

Weeks 7 and 8: The principles, instrumentation and application of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance

Week 9: pH measurements

Weeks 10 and 11: Isotopes in Biochemistry


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1:      Introduction to Plant Biology and Biotechnology

Week 2:      Career prospects and areas of specialization

Week 3:      Brief history and applications of biotechnology

Week 4-5:   Diversity of living organisms and habits, life forms, mode of nutrition,

size and shape

Week 6:      Classification of living organisms

Week 7-11: Concept of five kingdoms, their characteristics and possible evolutionary relationships among groups of Plants

Week 12:    Revision


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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Detailed treatment of metabolism of amino acids degradation and biosynthesis

Week 2: Inborn errors of metabolism. The urea cycle; metabolism of inorganic nitrogen

Week 3: Disorders of amino acid metabolism

Week 4: Oxidative and Non-oxidative deamination, Transamination and decarboxylation

Week 5: Transamidation, Transport and toxicity of ammonia, Creatine metabolism

Week 6: Polyamines

Week 7: Nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid synthesis/degradation

Week 8: Disorders of nucleotide metabolism.Hyperuricemia& other inborn errors

Week 9: One carbon metabolism, Transmethylation

Week…
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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1:      Biological diversity, genetic diversity and specific diversity

Week 2:      Species of local cereals, local legume species and local fruit tree species

Week 3:      Co-breeding/hybridization processes

Week 4:      Genetic erosion

Week 5:      Utilization and conservation of plant and animal genetic resources

Week 6:      Importance of conserving the biological heritage of plant and animal kingdoms

Week 7:      Development of seed and gene banks, modes of operation of gene banks

Week 8:      Biotechnologically-based alternatives to live…
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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1:      Concepts of immunity, humoral and cellular products of immunity

Week 2:      Cells of the immune system and the lymphoid organs

Week 3:      Natural and acquired immunity, Antigens: Structure and classification

Week 4:      Synthesis, structure and function of immunoglobulins, molecular basis

of antibody diversity

Week 5:      Antigen-antibody reactions, Production, detection and uses of monoclonal antibodies.

Week 6:      The complement system.        

Week 7:      Major Histocompatibility Proteins

Week 8:      Hypersensitivity and allergies

Week 9:      Therapeutic and…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1:Human dietary nutrient requirement and factors affecting the requirements

Week 2:Food habits and intakes

Week 3:Digestion, absorption, metabolism and function of carbohydrates, lipid, proteins and amino acids in mass

Week 4:Consequences of excess and inadequate calorie intake, protein energy malnutrition; Kwashiokor and Marasmus.

Week 5:The vitamins: Their chemistry, metabolism and function, the minerals: their metabolism and function

Week 6:Animal and microbial nutrition,feed formulation, food toxicants and detoxification mechanisms

Weeks 7 and 8:Food stuff: Nutritive and energy values…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Biochemical aspects of endocrinology, hormones, structures and functions

Week 2:Evolution of hormone action, classes of hormones, intercellular mediators of hormones, hormone receptors, binding activity and response

Week 3:Molecular mechanisms of action of steroids, thyroid and polypeptide hormones

Week 4:Kinetics of binding mode of action of hormones, cAMP as second messenger, role of calcium and other ions

Week 5:Amino acid derived hormones, steroid hormones and polypeptide hormones

Week 6:Hormone agonists and partial agonists.Biochemistry and function of insulin,…
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Week 1: Plant water relations – diffusion, permeability, osmosis water potential and its components

Week 2: Absorption of water - Apoplast and Symplast, Passive and active absorption Transpiration types and significance; Stomatal Physiology. Factors affecting transpiration

Week 3: Enzymes – General properties, Nomenclature &Classification, Coenzymes and Cofactors mechanism of action and enzyme regulation

Week 4: Photosynthesis –Radiant energy, Absorption spectrum, Action spectrum, Hill reaction, Red drop and Emerson Enhancement effect; Pigment systems – I and II, Photo electron transport and…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1:Biochemistry of microbial growth: energetics and kinetics of microbial growth

Week 2:A review of general metabolic pathways and application in industrial processes

Week 3:Continuous culture methods, principles and applications

Week 4:Downstream processing in biotechnology and general instrumentation

Week 5:Fermentation- alcoholic, amino acid antibiotics and other secondary metabolites

Week 6:Primary and secondary metabolism.Process evaluation and development.Thechemostat and its application in industrial fermentations

Week 7:Microbial gums and other polymers

Week 8:Over-production of metabolites- amino acids, taste enhancers, vitamins, toxins…
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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Introduction – scope and division of Horticulture, history of gardening

Week 2: types of Garden – Indoor garden, Public garden, Kitchen garden, Garden Implements and accessories

Week 3: Nursery structures –Nursery beds, propagating frames, hot beds, green house and glass houses.

Week 4: Nursery Management. Preparation of soil mixture. Organic farming

Week 5: Gardens Operation; planting and transplanting, pinching, debudding, defoliation, staking, pruning, mulching and topiary

Week 6: Terrace garden, Rock Garden, Hydroponics, Terrarium, Arches and…
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COURSE DETAILS

Weeks 1 and 2: Food constituents

Weeks 3 and 4: Basic concepts in food science

Week 5 and 6: Food preservation and processing

Week 7 and 8: Traditional and modern methods of food preservation

Week 9-10: Traditional and modern methods of food storage and microbial quality changes

Week 11: Storage of foods and microbial quality changes

Week 12: Revision.


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COURSE DETAILS

Weeks 1 and 2: Culturing of microorganisms; preparation of media for microbial growth

Weeks 3 and 4: Isolation of pure culture, sub-culturing procedures (streaking, pour plate etc).

Weeks 5 and 6: Staining techniques for differentiation of microorganisms

Weeks 7 and 8: Techniques for enumeration of microorganisms (direct and indirect procedures

Weeks 9, 10 and 11: Identification of microorganisms to include colonial and cellular morphology and biochemical procedures.

Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS

Weeks 1 and 2: Introduction, heritable and non-heritable characteristics

Weeks 3 and 4: Characteristics and functions of DNA and RNA in the cell

Week 5: Structure of the chromosome

Week 6: Recombination

Week 7: Mutation

Weeks 8 and 9: Brief review: replication, and transduction

Weeks 10 and 11: Brief review: transcription and translation

Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: The characteristics of soil environment
Weeks 2 and 3: microbial flora and fauna of soil; microbial activities in soil
Week 4: Nitrogen cycle, mineral transformation by microorganisms
Weeks 5 and 6: Ecological relationship among soil pathogens
Week 7: Effect of pesticides on soil microorganisms
Week 8 and 9: Biodegradation and biofuels generation
Week 10 and 11: Microbiology of the rhizosphere
            Week 12: Revision  

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COURSE DETAILS

Weeks 1 and 2: General characteristics of plant, and animal viruses and bacterial viruses

Weeks 3 and 4: viral replication, spread and cytopathic effects

Week 5 and 6: Virus classification, purification and assay

Week 7 and 8: Regulation of lytic development and maintenance of the Lysogenic state in bacteriophages lambda

Weeks 9-11: P2 and 14 single stranded DNA and RNA phageviroids as pathogens

Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS

Week 1: Introduction to immunology

Week 2: Innate and acquired immunity

Week 3: Antigens, antibodies, cellular immunity

Week 4: Immunological tolerance and suppression

Weeks 5 and 6: Surgical grafting. Complement System

Weeks 7 and 8: Hypersensitivity. Immunological anomalies

Week 9: Diagnostic immunology

Week 10: Vaccines

Week 11: Effector systems of parasite killing and nature of resistance in plants.

Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS

Weeks 1 and 2: The distribution, role and significance of micro-organisms in food

Weeks 3 and 4: intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affect microbial growth, food spoilage and food borne diseases

Weeks 5 and 6: Micro-organisms indices of food sanitary growth

Weeks 7 and 8: food microbiology standards

Weeks 9-10: Disease of animal transmittable to man via food products. 

Week 12: Revision


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 4-5    Reproduction:

  • Definition and types,

Week 6-7:   Cleavages

  • Definition and cleavage patterns

Week 8:      Embryology

  • Definition and stages

Week 9:      Gametogenesis

Definition, process of oogenesis and process of spermatogenesis


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COURSE DETAILS:

Week 1: Cell and its concept: Definition of cell

  • Types of cell, History of cell theory, Cell theory

Week 2: Components of cell.

  • Functions of the various components of cell.

Week 3:Organization of life: Definition

  • Levels of organization of life
  • Advantages and disadvantages of the complexity in higher organisms.

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