All OER Journal Articles


The study examines large scale land deals and investment in Nigeria
with a focus on women in rural communities. Large scale land deals as a
development paradigm is recommended within the context of globalisation.
Hence, promoters of globalisation argue that land deals and investment is a
tool for poverty reduction and promotes sustainable agricultural and rural
development. In the light of this assumption, development paradigm which
emphasises privatisation and liberalisation of land adopted by the Nigerian
government is seen as…
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Globalization as a paradigm of development emphasizes stabilization, structural adjustment, market forces, deregulation,
privatization and liberalization of trade. The realization of sustainable development through these policies by the
developing states is seriously in doubt. African countries are yet to attain sustainable development despite the various
arguments in support of globalization .The integration of all countries into the global economy is seen as a veritable
solution to their economic growth and development. In the light of this assumption, globalization essentially conceived…
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Armed conflicts have been a major problem in Africa for many decades. Since the
be-ginning of the 1990s, the African continent has acquired a dubious honor of being number
one in hosting the largest number of armed con?licts and complex emergencies. This article
examines the role of international humanitarian law (IHL) in the amelioration of the plight
of victims of armed con?lict in Africa. The article shows that in spite of the ratification of IHL
by most African states, its…
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Africa grapples with the world’s most serious public health crisis, but this
article shows that there are public health solutions that work in the African
setting. When the Ebola virus disease outbreak was announced in
Nigeria in July 2014, some public health specialists worried that an
apocalyptic outbreak would sweep through the vast slums of Lagos. The
words “Ebola” and “Lagos” in the same sentence were viewed as a
dangerous combination, due to the large population of Lagos and the READ MORE Download Staff Profile


Peacebuilding in post-conflict societies in Africa has been a major challenge in the conti-nent
since the end of the Cold War. What could be responsible for this? One of the greatest challenges of
peacebuilding in post-conflict societies in Africa is making ex-combatants and victims of the conflict live
peacefully by upholding the fundamental ethics of their societies. This problem arises because armed
conflicts often erode cherished ethics in an attempt to subjugate an enemy. Most peacebuilding projects
basically achieve negative…
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Over the years, media violence and its effects on children’s health and aggressive behaviour remain a puzzle to be solved in many urban centres of developing world. At different ages, children due to their exposure, watch, sight-see, read, play and understand videos, television, magazines, videogames and films in different ways and as such, mimic behaviour from media especially when such behaviour is presented in a simple and instructional manner. This paper examines the kind of media device parents acquired for…
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This review examines issues relating to biomedical
ethics and literature in the African drama The
President’s Physician by Emmanuel Babatunde
Omobowale. The play investigates the psychological
dilemma of Doctor Bituki Warunga, a personal physician
to General Kalunga Ntibantunganyah who brutally
and inhumanely rulesWavaria, a fictional African country.
The doctor is faced with deciding to uphold the
ethics of his profession versus terminating the tyrant’s
life to set the nation free. The play aims to help budding
medical doctors rightly inculcate…
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The spate of instability in the West African Sub-region has for long drawn attention not only from the academia but also in everyday discussion. The sub-region has a long history of conflict with evidence of not one but myriads of causes to those conflicts, which many studies have shed light on. Currently, the sub-regional power and the main peace keeper (Nigeria) is waging war against the Boko Haram terrorist group on its own soil with grave consequence for the West…
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Previous studies on regionalism in West Africa affirm that one of the reasons
for integration in the region is the selfish political interests of Nigeria. However, the
benefits of regional cooperation amongst West African states cannot be sacrificed on
the altar of the political interests of Nigeria as previously claimed. Undoubtedly, the
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has embarked on different
integration schemes to foster cooperation and development among member-states; the
most important among all is the Free…
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Weather monitoring is a global phenomenon and its impact world-wide cannot be over emphasized. The monitored parameters are always factored into result-based performance and efficiency. This efficiency can also be determined by the solar irradiance. Solar energy installations are some of the alternative energy generation strategy adopted globally, hence it is important to determine the location, size and position of the panel to ensure maximum solar irradiance. This work is aimed to study the effect of sun tracking solar installation…
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Methyl ester, also called biodiesel, is an alternative fuel for diesel engine that is produced from
renewable agricultural products. Biodiesel is an alkyl ester obtained from vegetable oils, waste
cooking oils or animal fats via transesterification process. The three types of fuels used for the
tests are pure biodiesel (BIOO), blended Biodiesel (B20), which is a 20 percent mixture of
biodiesel with 80 percent diesel fuel, as well as pure diesel fuel (100%) derived from crude
petroleum. The characterized fuels…
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The present dependency on petroleum based bio-plastics is not only harmful to the environment
but also to the economy. A remarkable research in the production and applications of plastics in
the renewable energy has being ongoing. The problems, solutions and prospects of sustainable
plastic production forms are the focus of this write-up. The petroleum based plastics were
compared with bio-plastics. The best way of producing plastics from surplus renewable sources
such as coconut fibre, bamboo, palm fronds, pineapple leaves among…
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Nigeria is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
That not withstanding it is an importer of refined petroleum products. This paper
explores the development of small-scale modular private refineries and large-scale
conventional private refineries. Some of the major problems encountered in the process
of developing private refineries in Nigeria were discussed. These are government
regulation of refined petroleum product prices, low profit margin in a regulated
economy, hostile environment, lack of funds and lack of crude…
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The oil and gas industry is an essential pillar of the nation’s economy. The challenges in
the industry can be solved through public private partnership. Pipeline vandalism,
frequent changes in national oil and gas company management and its incoherent policy,
oil bunkering, insurgency, fluctuating crude oil prices, business joint venture and decay
of infrastructures, gas flaring and gas pricing were identified as the key problems. The
solutions are: The Federal Government should develop national plan for critical
infrastructure. The pipelines…
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The behaviours and performances of an ideal grafting of 4-Chloromethylstyrene onto
polyethylene substrates were predicted/discussed using designed models. MATLAB was
used as the model simulator due to its very broad and all-encompassing functions and
capabilities. The models designed were compared and contrasted with one another and also
with the experimental data for validation. Inferences were drawn based on the findings and
within the confines of the simplifying assumptions made. Conventional adsorption models
developed and tested include; Lagergren pseudo first order…
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This study deals with the mass transfer evaluation of the graft polymerization of 4-
choromethyl styrene unto irradiated polyethylene substrate. Experimental data were obtained
from literature. These data were analysed and mass transfer parameters such as DE, DL, KL,
were evaluated from these data using correlations such as the Wilke-Chang equation for
estimating diffusivities, the Newman plot for estimating effective diffusivities. The mass
transfer parameters increased with temperature as expected. Values of DL obtained were
9.992 × 10-10 m2/s, 1.258…
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Nigeria is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). That
not withstanding it is an importer of refined petroleum products. This paper explores the
development of small-scale modular private refineries and large-scale conventional
private refineries. Some of the major problems encountered in the process of developing
private refineries in Nigeria were discussed. These are government regulation of refined
petroleum product prices, low profit margin in a regulated economy, hostile environment,
lack of funds and lack of crude…
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Polymer catalyst for biodiesel production was developed and the catalytic activity dependence on preparation
condition, ranging from adsorbed radiation dose, reaction temperature and retention time were investigated in
this study. The catalyst was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene
onto a polyethylene substrate followed by amination with trimethylamine and was further treated with sodium
hydroxide solution. Gamma radiation was directed at a constant rate of 20kGy/hr on four different samples of
polyethylene substrates at different exposure times ranging from…
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This research work produced adhesive that could adequately be utilized by the wood and paper
industry. From the analysis, it is observed that working properties of the wood adhesives
produced fall within standard values. The wood adhesives are cheap and it is equally known as
water resistance adhesive because it cannot be separated by water. Most of the raw materials
were sourced locally. Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) is the major component and contributes more of
the adhesive composition. Wood adhesives have…
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Over the years, the use of domestic cleansers which increased cleaned, healthy and sanitized
environment has become vast and enormous in the society at large, as such, the need for products
with high cleansing power has become inevitable and the order of the day. This study focused
mainly on the production of scouring domestic powder with high cleansing soap properties,
capable of meeting with specifications, it is basically composed of a fatty acid, an alkaline
product and an abrasive agent,…
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The purpose of this paper is to present a report on the characterization of crude glycerol derived
from biodiesel processed from cashew, melon and rubber seed oils. Crude glycerol is a coproduct
from biodiesel production. To make the crude glycerol economically useful, it is
imperative to characterize it. Investigative tests were carried out on the vegetable oils and on
the crude glycerol that were separated from the biodiesel fuels with a separating funnel. The
fatty acid profile was obtained using…
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This publication highlights the investigation carried out on biodiesel oil seed crops farming.
The main focus of this write-up is on the net energy balance of biodiesel compared to other
fuels and the benefits of biodiesel oilseed crops. Other issues considered are the problems
and prospects of biodiesel oilseed crops farming as well as the oil content and the
kilogramme oil yield per hectare


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This study examines the influence of EU exceptional trade agreements on intra-WAEMU trade under the influence of their openness to the EU.  The results tend to support WAEMU as trade creating to ECOWAS.  The study so recommend that, the policy of unilateral decision of products that qualify for preferential treatment by EU should be frowned upon.  We recommend stability of coverage should be sought by ECOWAS.


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Although economic theory postulates that fiscal deficits stimulate economic growth, empirical research has been less conclusive about this relationship.  This paper therefore, examines the impact of fiscal deficit on Nigeria’s economic growth for the market based exchange rate regime period, 1986 – 2010, using the recent bounds testing co-integration approach, developed within the framework of the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) procedure.  The results showed that (i) a long-run relationship exist between fiscal deficit and Nigeria’s economic growth (ii) Fiscal Deficit…
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The study analyzed the trading agreements in West Africa Monitoring Zone (WAMZ).  In particular, the study aimed to ascertain if without effects of EU preferential trade agreements is WAMZ trade diverting or creating?  The empirical finding from the study shows that WAMZ is insensitive to the link with EU in their intra-trade affair.  The study is thus reminiscent of the fact that WAMZ have not enjoyed significant inter and intra trade under the persuasion of their openness to the EU. …
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This study is an econometric exploration of the impact of differential trade preferences on the Economic Society of West African Countries with focus on the Cotonou Agreement period of 2001 to 2013.  The aim was to empirically evaluate using panel least squares regression method the degree to which the preferential trade agreement between EU and ECOWAS has affected intra-ECOWAS integration.  Given a significant interactive effect, we accept the supposition that EU exceptional trade agreements with ECOWAS countries have not significantly…
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The paper examines the link between capital structure and firm financial performance in Nigeria on basis of panel research design with secondary data spanning 2010-2014 financial year for seventy (75) sampled companies quoted in the Nigerian Stock Exchange was analysed.  The data estimation technique was the 2SLS which is suitable in study perceived not be devoid of endogeneity.  The result revealed that leverage as proxy by ratio of noncurrent liability to equity (NCLEQ) seems not to exhibit causality with financial…
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This study ascertains the role of corporate governance in attracting banks’ returns in Nigeria from 2006-2016 using panel regression technique.  Data were collected from a sample of 21 banks listed on Nigerian Stock Exchange.  We found significant positive impact of board size, board composition, directors’ equity interest on banks’ performance in Nigeria.  Decisively therefore, we recommend increase in size of management of board as one factor for inducing banks’ return in Nigeria.


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International reserves typically incude a country’s official gold stock holdings, convertible foreign currencies, Special Drawing Rights (SDRS), and net position in the International Monetary Fund (IMF), (Sodersten, 1985).


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An attempt is made in this paper to examine empirically, the relevance of the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) hypothesis to explaining the behaviour of exchange rate in Nigeria.  To this end, we specified an econometric model using such variables suggested by theory as inflation and interest rates, the level and growth in the country’s money stock, amongst other relevant factors.  The model was estimated using non-linear least squares estimation techniques.  Data used covered the 1970-2004 sample period.  The results obtained…
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This study examine the interplay between Naira devaluation, external balance position with particular reference to the Marshal-Lerner condition and the macroeconomic performance of the Nigerian economy from 2000 through to 2015.  The study was econometrically piloted by estimating the vector error-correction autoregressive model having conducted the VEC Granger causality and block exogeneity Wald tests.  The empirical evidence supports the fact that external imbalance is mainly as a result of the downward adjustment in the official Naira exchange rate in the…
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This study examined the determinants of the volatility of exchange rate of the Naira in relation to the US dollar using time series data set that spans from 1986 through 2014.  The study estimated the volatility of the exchange rate on the basis of the threshold autoregressive conditional heterosedasticity model and the vector autoregressive model was estimated for its determinants.  The empirical findings of the study reveal that openness, exchange regime, oil price shocks and speculation are the significant causes…
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This paper employs Structural Vector Auto Regression (SVAR) methodology to analyze the effectiveness of monetary policy on balance of payments IN Nigeria over the sample period, 1985 to 2015.  The identifying restrictions were situated on the coefficient matrix of innovations.  The results of the study are straightforward.  The interest rate does explain an enormous impulse in the monetary transmission process in Nigeria.  A major empirical finding is the fact that the fact that the BOP effect of interest rate shock…
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This study analyzed the impact of microfinance banks’ credit on macroeconomic variables in Nigeria, using a quadratic regression model.  The analysis indicates that through deposit mobilization and credit delivery, microfinance banks have significantly enhanced the development of the Nigerian economy through productivity growth, employment generation, poverty reduction and investment expansion. However, the poverty reduction effect of microfinance is yet to be all round significant in Nigeria.  To sustain the significant impact, microfinance banks need to be strengthened in terms of…
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The paper empirically examines the growth effects of government expenditure, taxation and overall fiscal adjustment in Nigeria over a sample period of thirty-years.  The Bounds co-integration, error correction modelling and model stability test framework was adopted in the study.  Some of the empirical evidences are as expected; others are new and astounding in that they contradict the theory.  In general, empirical findings are that recurrent government expenditure is growth-enhancing, capital expenditure is growth-retarding and government taxation is also growth-retarding in…
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The study examines post-merger activities of financial sector in Nigeria from 2001 to 2014.  The panel data fixed effect technique was utilized in the study.  By empirical standard, hypothesis of merger having insignificant impact on asset returns of Nigerian banks is rejected.  Empirically, the post-merger performance of banks is justified by the amount of shareholders’ fund, the deposit growth and least capital of money-making banking system.  We therefore recommend amongst others that the CBN should intensify efforts towards effective sustenance…
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The study attempts to rationalize the impact of international trade flows on employment generation in
Nigeria within the framework of the vector error correction model. The study found that the volume of
international trade has no significant positive impact on employment generation in Nigeria. Indeed, the
recent empirical evidence is that of a significant negative employment effect of total trade volume in
Nigeria. This could be as a result of the SAP-induced trade liberalization forced on the country by the…
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This research seeks to examine the impact of human development index (HDI) on economic transformation Nigeria. The paper adopted error correction mechanism to accentuate the dynamic paths of variables and aptitude of these variables to return to long-run equilibrium after a shock. From empirical results, it was found that HDI and school enrolment were most statistically significant in Nigerian growth equation. We thus recommend as a policy that emphasis human capital development in Nigeria most especially when the Nigerian nation…
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The study empirically examines a co-integrated model of financial stability of Nigerian financial sector in relation to credit financing over the sample period 1990 to 2016. The methodology of error correction was adopted in the study. The study found that credit financing and financial stability are positively linked. Nevertheless, with ecm coefficient of 1.798, the Nigeria’s financial system is unstable; any short run disturbance to the nation’s financial sector will not be restored in the nearest future. Moreover, the coefficient…
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The paper explores empirically the relative effect of capital outflows on the growth rate of GDP in Nigeria. To
accomplish this task, three models of GDP growth rate were specified with each model incorporating a different
measure of capital flight from Nigeria. The variables in the models were examined for possible co-integration.
Research findings shows that capital flight impacts adversely on the growth rate of GDP and such growth rate effect
of capital outflow is significant, capital control is insignificant…
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This paper performed an empirical test of the relationship between private and
public health expenditures in Nigeria. Our results reveal complementarity of inputs between
public and private health expenditures in Nigeria. The result is thus an indication that
government health investment plans crowd in private health investment spending. The
crowding in effect could be induced by government tax incentives and government regulation
(policy intervention). By economic intiution, the efficiency of private health spendings is also
a function of the weight…
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This paper attempts to analyze the labour productivity effects of health capital in Nigeria. The GMM methodology was adopted in the estimation having tested for unit root and possible co-integration. We find that health capital investment is a significant determinant of labour productivity. Evident from the hypotheses the null hypothesis of an insignificant impact of health capital investment on labour productivity in Nigeria is vehemently invalidated on the basis of a significant Wald coefficient. The analysis indicates that health capital…
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This study evaluated the impact of macroeconomic policy on aggregate investment in Nigeria over the sample period of forty three years. The Granger Two-Step method of co-integration and error correction estimation were adopted in the study. The study ascertained a significant positive impact of monetary policy on investment growth in Nigeria; the investment effect of trade policy is positive but insignificant while that of fiscal policy is absolutely negative and significant. Also, the results suggest that investment in Nigeria is…
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This paper examines the dynamics between money supply and inflation in Nigeria using the Toda-Yamamoto causality test and the error correction methodology from the period of 1980-2012. Causality is found to run from money stock to output and inflation within the confines of the Nigerian economy. The estimated inflation elasticity of money stock is 1.002. Accordingly, increase in money supply is proportionately matched by the increase in inflation rate in Nigeria. Therefore, the study concludes that inflation is a purely…
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This study examines the inter-relationship between money supply and investment volatility in Nigeria using a restricted VAR model. With estimated VAR object of class “varest”, a restricted VAR was estimated by choosing scheme “ser”. In which circumstance, we re-estimated each equation distinctly with provision of our t-values in absolute value below the threshold value regulated by the function's argument thresh. The core condition that generated was that our variables are co-integrated. From economic view, joint dynamics of our variables that…
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The study examines the degree of significance of the capital adequacy
ratio in influencing the financial deeds of Nigerian banks by applying the
feasible GLS estimator technique on the pooled panel model for the period of
2007 to 2015. Empirical evidence supports the overriding impact of capital
adequacy in enhancing the financial deeds of Nigerian banks. Nevertheless,
the impact of the estimated capital adequacy is below 30%. The policy stance
of the empirics holds thus that depositor’s money in the…
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This study examines and empirically estimates the relationship between inflationary
expectations and the variations in interest rate in Nigeria using the Generalized Method of
Moment (GMM) estimator. In line with the study objective, we hypothesize that interest rate
variations have no significant impact on inflation expectations in Nigeria. The results of
empirical study indicate that the effect of interest rate variation on expected inflation in Nigeria
is negative and significant. The conclusion is that variation in prime lending is a…
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In this paper, we explored the J-curve effect based on Nigerian data by adopting the vector error correction methodology. The results of the study indicated a cyclical feedback between the trade balance and the real exchange rate depreciation of the Naira. However, the analysis finds no empirical evidence in favour of the short-run deterioration of the trade balance as implied by the J-curve hypothesis. Rather, what is empirically supported is the cyclical trade effect of exchange rate shocks. As it…
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This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on economic growth rate in Nigeria using the impulse response functions and forecast error variance decomposition on quarterly data from 2000 to 2016. This study finds that fluctuations in oil prices cause swings in GDP growth rate in Nigeria. The fluctuation in oil prices also depreciates Naira exchange rate. The country should branch out its revenue sources to shield the dangle effect of the fluctuation in prices of oil.


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The paper analyzes the policy implications of the big-push model for development in Nigeria. The highlights of the analysis include existence of three inter-related perceptions namely, poverty trap, big push (BP) and takeoff. The basic idea is that poor countries are in poverty, hence needs BP linking amplified investment, leading to takeoff in national income and development. This indeed rationalizes necessity for overseas aid. In effect, minimum infrastructure and educational resources be apportioned to development programme to achieve success. However,…
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We employed the autoregressive distributed lag [ARDL] model. This was estimated based on the Bound cointegration
technique. We indeed attempted to shed light to relationship between human capital development and
economic growth in Nigeria. Thus, while it cannot be concluded that human capital development has significant
contribution to economic growth in Nigeria because both variables of education and health were not found to be
jointly significant, it can be concluded that education has contributed significantly and positively to economic
growth…
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This study analyses the relationship between exchange rate misalignment and balance of payments (BOP) mal-adjustment in Nigeria over the sample period of 1973 through to 2012 using the vector error correction econometric modelling technique. The most germane result of the study is the fact that exchange rate misalignment exhibited a positive impact on the Nigerian’s balance of payments position. In addition to the VECM estimates, the Granger pair-wise causality test results also indicated a unidirectional causality running from exchange rate…
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This paper analyzes the economics of saving and consumption and its
implications for retirement planning in Nigeria with special emphasis
on the life cycle models of saving and spending patterns of the
individual worker over a period of life time. The policy stance of this
paper upholds the fact that it is never too untimely to initiate saving
for retirement. To a greater extent, it is highly desirous to sustain a
retirement saving plan needed to prepare for a financially…
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The objective of the paper is to empirically examine the effect of FDI
and public expenditure on the Nigerian economy. The simultaneous equation
estimation was carried out in the study. From the elasticity-multiplier
coefficient table, it became obvious that infrastructure measured by power
generation is highly germane in stimulating economic growth and foreign
direct investment. The study thus recommends the need for significant
infrastructure such as power supply.


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ABSTRACT

This study is on child involvement in Boko Haram, one of the world’s deadliest extremist groups.  One of the most shocking horrors of Boko Haram’s rampage across West Africa has been the insurgents’ ability to turn captured boys and girls into destroyers and killers.  Since 2014, Boko Haram insurgents have used hundreds of young boys and girls to terrorize north-east Nigeria and some of her northern neighbours such as Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad.  Activities of Boko Haram…
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Abstract

This paper discusses corruption in the Nigerian state from the viewpoint of rentierism.  It conceptualizes rentierism by bringing out the hallmarks of a typical rentier economy.  It traces the major causes of corruption to the wealth accumulation syndrome (rent-seeking) to the political and economic structure of the Nigerian state and draws copiously form the instances of corrupt practices among both the politicians and the bureaucrats and more importantly to the creation of Nigeria that has led to…
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Econometrically, we analyzed role of selected African stock exchanges in welcoming FDI inflows by estimating time-varying factor augmented vector auto-regression (FAVAR) model for 2006:Q1 to 2017:Q4. Our results support FDI being massively influenced by movements in two stock market predictors namely, stock market's size, that is, total market value of stock market's listed shares calculated by multiplying a stock market’s shares listed by current market price of one share and stock market liquidity which is total value of traded shares…
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This study investigates the relation between trade liberalization and industrial development in Nigeria. Adopted in the study is the human capital model of endogenous growth with modifications for trade liberalization within the Nigerian context. In the empirical investigation, co-integration and error correction estimation approaches were carried out with the aid of the Generalized Method of Moments [GMM] estimator. A unique co-integration between industrial development and the explanatory variables in the study is found. In order to determine the short-run dynamics…
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We have in this paper attempted to shed empirical evidence on unresolved issues regarding the J-curve trade effect of real exchange rate depreciation with special focus on the Nigerian oil sector using the Bounds testing approach on time series data that spans over a 40-year period. Despite the well known argument that a real depreciation initially deteriorates the trade balance but through time, the trade balance improves such that the time path associated with the response of the trade balance…
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Most National Policies in Nigeria are made through the interaction of the Presidency, the bureaucracy and the various kinds of interest groups.  People are generally interested in the interaction between institutions and policies.  They are also interested in knowing how policies and programmes are implemented, what role institutions play, what promotes rapid and successful implementation, and the level of efficiency of the implementation process for different types of policy


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This study examined the relationship between the oil industry and host communities through the historical evolution of the oil industry in Nigeria.  This is informed by the fact that in recent years.  Significant strides have been made to build a legal framework for matters of this nature in most resource-bearing areas of the world.  Data was both by primary and secondary sources.  Findings showed that two types of relationship- vertical and horizontal existed between the industry and host…
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Introduction

What constitutes the shares of a company has assumed varying legal meaning overtime.  During the period of the old Deed of Settlement Company, the partnership property vested in the trustees, with members having a kind of “shares” which entitled them to an equitable interest in the assets of the company.  The snag with this arrangement is that the nature of this equitable interest is not exactly clear as members of the “company” could not lay claim to the assets…
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The study is an empirical test of validity of arbitrage pricing theory (APT) in
Nigerian Stock Exchange Market (NSEM) and its volatility for the sample period
of 2010 to 2014 using quarterly data on forty-two stocks listed in NSE. Using the
EGARCH model, GLS and the fixed effect panel data estimator with cross section
specific coefficients, the study validates the APT for NSEM. The policy
implication is such that the study upholds the APT theory for NSEM. Results
show money…
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ABSTRACT

This study examines the relationship between the oil industry and host communities in the context of the historical evolution of the oil industry in Nigeria by assessing the impact continued vertical relationship will have on all stakeholders in the industry.  This is informed by the fact that in recent years, significant strides have been made to build a legal foundation for matters of this nature in most resource-bearing areas of the world.  Whereas, studies like this focused…
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The study uses an instrumental variable estimator to econometrically re-estimate effects of fiscal deficit financing on output growth rate plus the threshold value of such deficit financing that is consistent with growth rate of national output in Nigeria based on a system specification and theThreshold Autoregressive (TAR) specification. Estimations were done with quarterly data from 2010:Q1 to 2017: Q2. Results of likelihood ratio test validated existence of threshold effect and this implies that link between fiscal deficit financing and long-run…
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ABSTRACT

The United Nations Convention Against Torture (UNCAT) was adopted in 1984 as a result of gross human rights abuses by Nazi Germany and Japan during the Second World War and especially in the area of torture where Jews and other Prisoners of War were gassed in chambers and tortured leading to millions of lives lost and the failure of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and Geneva Conventions to effectively address the fight against…
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ABSTRACT

This paper is not about corruption in the general sense it is talked about in Nigeria, that is, wanton embezzlement of public money by political or public office holders, but about the pervasion of the electoral process, which this paper refers to as the door through which political office seekers must pass in order to realize their mission.  The problem is attendant challenges the pervasion brings to bear on the ability of the courts to disperse without…
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INTRODUCTION

Local government are third tier level of government meant to serve as agent of rural and grassroots development.  In Nigeria, they have evolved through the years acquiring different status which each successive administrations structuring, them to suit its peculiar needs and purposes.  Most of the reforms do record some successes but it has been realized that local government fared worst under military regimes except during that of General Ibrahim Babangida.


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ABSTRACT

This paper examined the various contract pacts existing between Nigeria and international oil companies engaged in the business of oil extraction in the country and the effects of the contract pacts on benefits of the oil industry that should accrue to oil producing communities of Niger Delta.  To this end, the paper argued that argued that the various contract arrangements never had inputs of host communities; instead host communities interest were left to be attended to through…
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This study uses St. Louis model to econometrically answer the question of whether the Keynesian policy or the Monetarist’s policy was more efficacious on employment generation in Nigerian with quarterly data for sample period of 1992 to 2016. The empirical finding is that cumulative effects of Keynesian of increasing aggregate government spending on the growth rate of employment in Nigeria is dominant in contrast to Monetarist’s policy. The policy simulation results reported negative dynamic multiplier of -0.01 of monetary policy…
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In the midst of stiff global competition among industrialized
countries focuses on how Nigeria, as a developing economy develop policies
and strategies for her exports competitiveness for sustainable development.
To achieve this, this paper has estimated Nigeria’s exports competitiveness
in the World market by utilizing the Bound Testing approach. The
econometric estimate suggest that Nigeria’s exports are less competitive in
the United Kingdom but highly competitive in the United States, Japan and
Canada. Nigeria’s exports are strongly influenced by the…
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This paper seeks to investigate the empiricism behind the New National Tax Policy in Nigeria by employing cointegration
and error correction as methods of empirical estimation with an empirical strategy of disaggregation. In
line with the objective of the paper, empirical results indicate that while the policy of direct taxation is significantly
and positively correlated with economic growth, indirect taxation proved insignificant with its negative impact on
economic growth in Nigeria. The paper indeed ascertained that the tax-based revenue profile…
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African countries recorded impressive growth rates in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the global economic crisis
of the 1980s dealt a severe anti-developmental blow on African countries. Eventually, African countries
embarked on widespread liberalization of their economies following intense pressures from Bretton Wood
institutions. This paper explores the notion that globalization have engendered the immiserization (a term used
by Karl Marx to indicate increasing misery or depth of poverty) of African countries on the one hand and
resulted in a…
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Abstract
This paper is a study of the impact of trade and commercial activities in pre-colonial Esan society, up to 1900. The objective to add to the existing literature debunking the Eurocentric idea that Esan economy was a backward and uninteresting during the pre-colonial period. Without doubt, during this period, the Esan economy reached its peak, sustained with all the extra and superstructure of a developed society. Moreover, trade and commerce the topic this paper, trade in pre-colonial…
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Abstract

This work is concerned with the imposition of British colonial rule and the foundations of a newEconomy in Esanland which transformed the society economically in an extremely narrow, manner that revolved around the particular interests of colonialism. The transformation, it must be noted, did not reproduce Esan society in the mirrow image of Western European. Although colonialism introduced some elements of capitalism into the society, the capitalist mode of production as a system was not introduced and…
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Abstract
This paper examined federalism and the quest for national integration in Nigeria. The study explores the conceptual definition of federalism by various scholars. To this end therefore, the paper discuses major contending issues affecting the federal stability of Nigeria such as; ethnic minority agitations, state creation, structural imbalance, indigenes/settlers dichotomy federal character principles etc. The method adopted for this research was secondary data collection. Hence, for effective stability, development and national integration, the paper concludes tha4 the…
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Abstract
One of the major problems facing most ethnic groups today is the religion of their past by historians. However, the effort of some historians in writing the history of Nigerian minority ethnic groups during the pre-colonial Era is far from being complete. A great deal in this aspect, especially that of the minorities that experienced invasions and subjugation in the hands of the larger societies is yet to be achieved to fill the gaps in our knowledge…
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Abstract
Nigeria, a country with an estimated population of about 140 million attained independence in 1960. Since then there has been the challenge of incorporating the diverse peoples into a stable and United Nation community with the utmost goal of attaining creditable development. This paper thus with particular focus on the socio-political happenings in the country since independence bring into the limelight a bold relief the need to revisit, reinvigorate and reposition the neglected archaeology of the Nigerian…
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This paper is on The 1897 British Conquest of Benin Kingdom and its Impact on Benin-Esan Intergroup Relations. The paper will contribute to existing literature on pre-colonial intergroup contacts; and debunk the negative misconceptions about Benin-Esan, relations which some scholars saw as master-servant relations that only benefited Benin kingdom. From the work, it is evident that before 1897 the fall of Benin kingdom was imminent because the activities of the British through treaties and diplomacy and offensive activities…
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Abstract
This work examines the rampant acts of terrorism in Nigeria and its implications on nation building and National Integration because the several established cases of assassination, bombing, kidnapping militancy and insurgency especially in the north east of Northern Nigeria indicated the radicalization of some Nigerians heralding the surfacing act of terrorism. This article interrogates the origin, causes and implications of these terrorist acts especially those of the Boko Haram bombing campaign on Nigeria’s quest to achieve nation…
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Abstract
The paper looks at Sustainability of Nigeria’s Democracy and the contending issues of National Integration: The way forward. So far, the only form of government through which individual and collective liberties are possible is democracy. However, for Democracy so serve the end purpose of the electors-national integration, freedom and dignity of all people, the bottlenecks against the consideration of democracy such as corruption, electoral malpractices, arbitrariness, violence, thuggery and material poverty of majority of the electorate must…
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Abstract
The invasion and occupation of Esanland is part of the general British conquest and occupation of Nigeria which was a consequence of the revoked royal chapter to the Royal Niger Company (RNC) in 1899. A deliberate act by which the British sought to guarantee her interest in the South West of the Niger. The intention of this paper therefore is to examine the invasion and resistance to British colonial rule in Esanland. In the examination, attention would…
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Abstract
This paper titled: religion as an instrument for enhancing national security and harmonious coexistence in Nigeria is timely because one of the national aspiration of Nigerians and the international community since our independence in 1960 is that religion as experienced or demonstrated in some nations of Europe, Asia and America should be an instrument of national security and vehicle of peace that triggers meaningful development. But at the contrary, “Religion” in Nigeria has become the main instrument…
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Abstract
Modern democracy is built on the existence of mediatory institutions through which differences in preferences and opinions are harmonized. At the informal realm, political parties, serving not only as lubricant of democracy but also as a major conduit in the democratization process represents one of such vital institutions. Indeed, the relationship between political parties and democracy is both symbiotic and axiomatic. However, such relationship can, only, be sustained to the enrichment of the political system where the…
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Abstract
The paper examines the issues about continuity and change in Nigeria using the British interference in the political activities in Esanland. The baseline for the discussion with the con quest and imposition of colonial rule in Esanland of present Edo state Nigeria, colonial political were put in place by the British colonial master to facilitate the exploitation of human and material resources beneficial to the industrial development of Britain. Their imperial policies found expression in the political…
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Abstract
This paper attempts to examine the major production endeavors that developed among the seven Ora villages of present Edo State before the imposition of British colonial economy. These precolonial activities attracted other countries from far and near to Ora Land. Without doubt, during that period, the economy reached its peak of growth and development with all the uper structures of a developed society which the colonial administration built on for the eventual economic exploitation of Ora land.…
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Abstract
Nigeria, a country with an estimated population of over 170 million attained independence in 1960. Since then there has been the challenge of incorporating the diverse peoples into a stable and single national community and sustainable democracy in order to achieve the utmost goal of sustainable developn2ent. This paper with particular focus on happenings in the country since 1960 bring into a bold relief the need to revisit, reinvigorate and reposition the neglected Nigerian history in our…
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Abstract
In recent times, no issue has generated widespread public comment in Nigeria more than the issues of leadership and ethno-religious threats rocking the country and the bitter consequences on national integration. To achieve this feat, the paper examines the concepts of leadership, ethno-religious crisis and national integration I Nigeria making use of library research and content analysis approach common to all historians. Apart from the above mentioned, the paper establishes when national integration became an issue in…
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Abstract
The paper examined the intra-group relations among the Ekpoma through a confederated political organization, a unified judicial system, economic cooperation and interdependence, socio-religious interactions among others. The paper argued that there were evidences to suggest that to a large extent, their relationship was bilateral and cordial before the imposition of colonial rule dictated by historical antecedents and geographical situation. The paper
provides a close focus on the intra-group dynamics of the Ekpoma confederated villages, which was sometimes…
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Abstract
Human Capital as it concerns trained, competent personnel and professionals in Africa have been leaving in droves. The cross roads between better offers and opportunities in distant lands of the West, Canada, the United States of America amongst others and the inherent problems hampering the unfolding of full potentials for those who remain are examined in this paper it further examines salient literatures on the trends and movement patterns of human capital as well as the factors…
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Abstract
The aim of the paper is to highlight the intrinsic value which the pre-literate Benin and Esan societies attached to their rich history and which they still attach to it today as well as circumstances and occasions for re-enacting the past and the methods adopted for the preservation of their history because it was a vibrant and functional instrument of intraintergroup relations before colonial imposition. In Benin and Esan, history is a bridge between the past and…
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Models are simply outcomes from levels of abstractions, so developing a modelling language is an effort in creating a
platform where the domain concepts can be mapped to the abstraction levels. Once this mapping is achieved, it will create a
stakeholder or domain expert user friendly notations from the concepts description. This will then enable the stakeholders the
freedom to express and achieve design intents and as well cope with the complexity of conventional design software. In this paper,
the…
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This is a research progress where FODA (feature oriented domain analysis) is used to implement a formal analysis
framework that characterized commonality and variability of features for a transmission pipeline design modelling language. The
features representing the pipeline physical components were analysed along the line of the system logic being able to model
stakeholders design intents. It is demonstrated that FODA methodology for domain analysis fits the needs for the application of a
carefully studied semantics to the development of…
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Computers have simplified our working life to be more efficient and productive, for
example, communication can be done through mail and instant messaging, presentation
can be shared through Netmeetings and meeting minutes can be stored in workspace or
shared drives. Computers, especially notebooks and laptops are very synonymous with
mobile lifestyles as it is very convenient. LAN and wireless facilities which allow users to
access borderless information at anywhere and at any time, turn the computer into a
necessity rather…
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Abstract: In domain specific modeling language development, model interactions and transformations play a crucial role. This paper introduces a new, syntax directed approach for the specification of modelinteractions for transformations within a domain specific modeling language. The technique is based on tokenization of the characteristic values and attributes of possible component elements of a fluid supply system. To demonstrate the mapping, expression parse trees and streams of tokens are recursively specified as syntax directed definitions in a context free grammar.…
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This paper presents a chat-system as a modern communication system taking advantage of
digital convergence that addresses the problems of delays, time and materials wastage, and
structures that characterize meetings, personal conversations, group conversation, and
advert placements in our society. Communication can be realized through any activity and
through specialized forms, such as audio conferencing. The specific task defined here is
modern communication enhanced and powered by digital convergence aimed at making
easier the communication of multiple users of a…
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This paper presents software developed using the Visual Basic Integrated Development
Environment capable of transmitting voice over an internet protocol. It is being implemented
by running the software in two end computers connected over the internet. The Internet
Telephony software project is a platform - independent application; meaning that it can run
on different network environments, ranging from LAN, MAN, WAN, and the Internet. As long
as the ping.exe utility gives a ping response from the remote host ID, there…
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Introduction
The historical geography of Nigeria is a largely unexplored field. It is a field in which historians, anthropologists, archaeologists, geographers and the bio-scientists can have very meaningful intellectual and academic discourse. Using the historical approach, the paper studies the. role of geography or natural environment in fostering and sustaining inter-group relations in Nigeria with specific reference to that of Benin (Bini) kingdom and the Esan (Ishan) people both of southern-western Nigeria in present Edo state. This is…
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Abstract
This paper examined fifteen years of Nigerian democracy: its reflection on national integration, one of the basic dividends expected of any democratic system. The paper aims to bring to the fore why and how Nigerian democracy since 1999 to date is yet to put in place integrative mechanism of its divergent but dynamic nationalities to nationhood. Few works exist about Nigerian Democracy but its effort on national integration is scanty. Thus this paper is timely and relevant…
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Abstract
This paper is on ethnicity, economic injustice and problem of massive corruption in explaining why good governance eludes Nigeria. The objective of the paper is to contribute to existing literature on why, good governance/democratic governance eludes the nation-state. It is already known by scholars that some contending issues are responsible for this, but without their mentioning of ethnicity, economic injustice and massive corruption as addressed in this paper. With the triumphant enthronement of democratic rule in 1999,…
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Abstract
Nigerian society is today replete with phenomena that make life “insecure, Brutish, nasty and short”, due to the challenges of incorporating the diverse peoples of Nigeria into a stable national community in order to achieve good democratic governance, for the utmost goal of sustainable development. This has eluded the nation-state since the triumphant enthronement of democratic rule. This paper explores the etiology of such social malaise as ethnic nationalism, and use of violence with a special focus…
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Abstract
This paper examines the corruption in the Nigerian Educational System. It identifies corruption as an obstacle to the set objectives of the sector in the attainment of the nation’s desire for manpower and national development especially in the nascent period of global competition. It also stressed the various links through which corruption is perpetuated in the sector with its impact and consequences. The paper recommends some measures to check the corrupt practices because most scholars agreed that…
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Abstract The main thrust of this paper is the role of history as a way forward from the contemporary socio-economic and political vices of corruption on accountable leadership and lack of good governance that are destroying the fabrics of development and national integration in Nigeria. The growing realization among scholars that, the root and nature of these vices cannot be fully comprehended and addressed without looking inward towards the past especially the era of colonialism and the decades that follows…
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Abstract
The area studied is Esanland located in the tropical forest region and it formed the Esan Division during the colonial western Nigeria. The area is today administered in five local government areas of the present Edo state, Nigeria. The study shows that the various polities of pre-colonial Esan people were each able to solve their problems arising from their composite nature. Moreover, the study shows that although the area did featured large state political
system learnt from…
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Abstract
This paper interrogates the citizenship rights and ethnic contestation in central Nigeria region taking the case of TIV struggle for indigeneship and settler question I independent Nigeria. It posit that the idea of a united plural ethnic Nigeria with common citizenship free from the viruses of sectarian bigotry and other forms of primordial sentiments go against certain pursuits of may patriots and nationalist especially the travails of the TIVS as discussed in this paper. The paper further…
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This is paper is on Historical Perspective of the Nigerian military in Intergroup Relations and Nation Building: The case of Midwestern Region, 1966-1979. The aim of the paper is to add to the scanty existing literature on the contributions of the Nigerian Military on intergroup relations and the nation-state quest for Nation Building. It also aim at educating readers that besides the provision of security, the Nigerian military had in the not too remote past contributed so much…
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Globally, public sector innovation has become a big issue as citizens demand for greater accountability, effectiveness and efficiency in service delivery, and the liberalisation of the governance system. Debate on e-government evolved in the last decade in parallel with a broader discussion on e-governance, where the concept and practice of e-governance further encompasses the e-government phenomenon. Because of the complexities of governance and e-governance, this chapter presents e-governance as a close, large integrated, open and sociotechnical (CLIOS) framework to meet…
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Information security is of great concern these days due to the activities of hackers and malicious users on the Internet. Securing information has become a critical issue and is of growing concern as computer systems worldwide become increasingly vulnerable to the rapid increase in the volume of information being transmitted across networks and over the Internet. In this paper, we proposed a technique that provides a robust intrusion detection system against attackers. It puts scalability and appropriate security in mind.…
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The development of correct program is a very important problem in computer science and software engineering. These days,
most software are full of errors even though they seem to work well after testing. When these software are put into use, some
errors which are formally passive becomes active and the result is the failure of such software. Therefore, there is need to develop
error-free software these days because software have become inevitable in every area of human endeavor especially software READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


An object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) is a database system which
supports an object-oriented data model. Just as any traditional database system, it must provide
disk management, data sharing, data integrity, security, and a query language. Further, in support
of an object-oriented data model, it must manage complex objects with object identity, support
objects that encapsulate data and behaviour, structure objects in classes, and organize classes in
a hierarchy. Having attracted reasonable maturity in the research community and the business READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Data modeling is an important part of database design. The data model focuses on what data should be stored in the database,
exploring the relation between data entities. The goal of the data model is to ensure that all data object required by the database
are accurately represented. This paper presents data abstraction technique to ensure data is modeled and represented accurately
using the entity relationship model. The ER modeling method provides a wide variety of possibilities in a database…
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Leak detection is a very important step in the production and maintenance of oil and gas pipelines. It is needed to check tightness specifications and to ensure other installation specifications are fulfilled. In this paper some pipeline leak detection methodologies are studied to come up with a design structure that could ease pipeline leak detection and monitoring via Google earth. A common difficulty identified for most of these methods is the aspect of generating a leak alarm when the pipeline…
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Psychoanalysis as a literary theory has helped to improve understanding about “human behaviour and human mental functioning.” This is achieved through its perception of the human race as neurotic. However, with its application in poetic interpretation, poetry is perceived as an expression of displaced neurotic conflict: a consoling illusion, symptom, socially acceptable phantasy or substitute gratification. With the psychoanalytic reading of the poetry of Tanure Ojaide, an Anglophone African poet, poetry is understood as an expression of symptoms…
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ABSTRACT
The paper begins by positing that African poetry in English expression has produced four generations of poets and then emphasises that the study is focused on the postmodernist generation, which is the latest generation of African poets in English expression. In the postmodernist generation, there are different kinds of poetic practices, but the one that is of interest in the paper is called a new historicist practice. This is explained as having to do with ‘the shifting and contradictory…
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This article is a ‘masculinist’ reading of Chukwuma Ibezute’s Victims of Betrayal, The Temporal Gods and Dance of Horror.The paper contends that African literature has always focused on Africa’s socio-political situation until a group of “activists in feminist movement” started agitating for a proper representation of women in literature. Unlike in Europe and America where the ideology is not challenged, in Africa it was challenged by a group of scholars who called themselves ‘masculinists’. Using Ibezute’s three novels, the ‘masculinist’…
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Abstract
This article contends that every generation has its challenges and that the first sets of people that wrestle with the challenges are the youths. In each generation, African writers make the challenges of the youths their major concerns. Like other generations, the youths of the contemporary generation are facing new societal challenges. For instance, in this generation, many youths graduate from the university without being able to demonstrate mastery of the courses they spent years to study. Using Camillus…
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Abstract
Existing literature has investigated the challenges of interstate border dispute, border conflict and their security and developmental implications for the West African sub-region. ECOWAS Free Movement Protocol of Persons was instituted to enhance economic development of West Africa’s citizens. However, studies have shown that the protocol has relatively aided transborder trafficking in persons, drugs, Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW). However, vulnerability of trans-border women traders in the sub-region have received little attention. This study utilized both…
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ABSTRACT
In this paper, an inverter system of 1KVA Power is designed from transformation ratio equations and relay configuration and on to electronic components and devices that converts DC Supply from Battery to AC Supply suitable for household and office appliance to cater for instability in power supply. The AC supply given out has a relatively smooth Sine Wave required for normal operation of any appliance. The Inverter is designed to operate for a minimum of thirty (34) minutes, which…
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In this study the ability of an e-commerce framework that deals with the purchase of goods online is presented. It makes use of the client and the server side architecture .The login and the registration are required to be completely filled and submitted by the users and are made available on the client side of the system while all other process that are database resides on the server side. The reason is to device a means of trade through an…
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The goal of learning in the midst of individuals and groups with mixed potentials is performance. It is evident that learning is most effective when it is done in an integrated platform. Learning analysts encourage this integration but don’t always offer practical strategies to make it happen. This paper attempts to begin to truly reduce the gap that slows down enterprise training and find ways to bring learning to an online community where interaction is never physical. The system works…
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In this paper, we present the architecture and describe the functionality of a Web-based tutorial model, which uses component codes for dynamic representation. Components are a type of hybrid rules that generates graphical data from the server side for the client side. The use of components as the functionality representation basis of a web based tutor results in a number of advantages. Part of the functionality of the system is controlled by using clientside code and a range of special…
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Presented in this paper is a simplification platform for engineering design that redirects designers from the conventional form of vector geometry. Using programming features it will promote automatic interchange of parametric data used in the creation of graphic models and those used in the design analysis of the models in order to accomplish specific design tasks. The entire process of creating a final graphics model which is termed graphics design and which results in a graphics model will involve the…
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Usually collection of keys are manually driven, hence it’s time consuming. Staffs of organizations have to sign in and sign out for keys in order to accomplish the daily jobs. In the process much time is spent collecting keys for the specific offices. This is because they are expected to write their names, departments, date, time against these respected columns; before they will now sign across the key columns, in a Key Movement Book (KMB) that keeps
records keys collection.…
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ABSTRACT
This study aims at determining the religious beliefs and the utilization of traditional medicine among members of Pentecostal Churches in Emure. The study was carried out using quota sampling technique. A semi containing 31 questions and an in used simultaneously to elicit information from church members. The research hypothesized that there was a significant relationship between the use of traditional medicine and the sex of respondents. Also there exists a significant relationship between the denomination of respondents and the…
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Abstract
The study investigated anxiety and gender as correlates of undergraduates’ perception of personal space. The study aimed at examining the relationship between anxiety and undergraduates’ perception of personal space and also assessed gender differences in undergraduates’ perception of personal space. The study employed a descriptive survey research design. It study adopted a multi-stage sampling technique in the process of the selection and the collection of data. These sampling techniques include: the stratified sampling method and the simple random sampling.…
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ABSTRACT
Research on maternal health was conducted among the residents community in republic of Benin to determine the available maternal health care services in the community and t pattern of the maternal health seeking behavio between the socio-cultural characteristic and maternal health care seeking behavio the area. The major instrume interview and non-participant observation method. The study established that there are a considerable number of maternity hospitals and health centers in the community, many of which are privately owned the…
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Information Retrieval (IR) has become a topic of great interest with the advent of text search engines on
the Internet. Information Retrieval (IR) is the area of study concerned with searching for documents, for information
within documents, and for metadata about documents in Internet. This paper proposed a hybridized approach using
KNN and VSM tools for retrieving information on the Web. The approach used standardized data to test this technique.
Using the recall values of 0.1, 0.2, …, 1.0, the…
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Domain specific modeling services, especially when made available to pipeline systems that transport oil and gas,
constitute an interesting but very challenging domain. It poses fundamental problems for requirements engineering, software
architecture, and their relationship. We propose a novel, domain-based framework for requirements engineering for this class
of applications. The framework addresses the key concepts in this field, such as changing complexities for design platforms
and domain specific requirements. We report experimental lessons learned on this framework and suggest requirements READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


The intent of this paper is to define a common case study for the domain-specific modeling research community.
The domain of the case study is oil and gas pipeline design management systems, i.e., systems that help in identifying,
handling, and controlling a pipeline design task by coordinating the communication between all component models and
dimensions involved in handling the design, by allocating and managing resources, and by providing access to relevant designrelated
information to domain experts. This document contains general…
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Domain specific modeling methodology employed in this solution provides abstractions in the problem domain
that expresses designs in terms of concepts in the application domain. Presented in this paper therefore is a metamodelling
tool, an integrated platform which offers layered collections of reusable software primitives whose semantics are familiar
only to engineering design mechanisms. It is intended to eliminate the complexities associated with the domain of computing
technologies such as CAD systems where the focus is solely on engineering designs…
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This is a research on DSML (domain specific modelling language) for Engineering Designs with particular interest in the
domain of Pipeline Design. It is a language metamodel whereby all the syntax in the language are embodied by a domain model that
conforms to it. The attributes of the domain model which is actually a pipeline graphics model from a real life example, is captured
as vocabulary of components into the language formalism for processing. In this paper, the authors report…
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Abstract.

The sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, stages of gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt,Pomadasys jubelini in the new Calabar-bonny River were investigated. P. jubelini had a sex ratio of 1: 2.1 (male to female). Gonadosomatic index ranged from 0.33 to 7.29% with a mean of 2.89±0.08%. Highgonadosomatic indices were recorded from September to October, which suggested the spawning periodof the fish. Two stages, maturing and mature were observed for male fish while quiescent, maturing and mature were…
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Abstract: 413 samples of Pomadasys jubelini were obtained from the New Calabar-Bonny River and examined over a period of twenty four months. The length ranged from 8.50cm - 47.60 and the weight from 17.00g - 2320g. Females were longer and heavier than males. There was a strong and positive relationship between fish length and weight (r) = 0.91 for males and 0.99 females, and b value (b<3) indicating a negative allometric growth.The monthly condition factor (K) ranged from…
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Abstract: The response of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in albino rats following oral administration of three Nigerian strains of Lactobacillus was investigated. Twenty albino rats weighing between 50g – 65g were grouped into five (groups BD, BM, BL1, BL2 and BL3) without bias. Three groups were orally dosed with the three strains of Lactobacillus each, while two groups received basal diet and sterile skimmed milk, respectively for six days. After which a post treatment period of ten…
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Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ANSC, a non-genetically modified bacterial strain isolated from soil was used to study and evaluate biosorption potentials for hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) from aqueous solution. Living, heat-killed, and permeabilised cells were all used and found to be capable of reducing and sorbing Cr(VI). The influences of initial Cr(VI) ion concentration (50–150 mg/L), contact time (2 h, 10 min intervals), pH (2–8), temperature (30–60°C) and biosorbent mass (1.0–5.0 g/l) were reported. Adsorption of Cr(VI) is highly…
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Abstract
Screening of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms from oil contaminated soil was studied and the samples were obtained from three Mechanical Workshops in Awka, Anambra State. The microorganisms were isolated using the pour plate method by selective enrichment technique. All samples were cultured in solid media with crude oil as a sole carbon and energy source to isolate hydrocarbon utilizers from the sample collected from different mechanic workshop. The isolate were identified on the basis of their colonial and…
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Abstract
Introduction: The most common oral hygiene aid used to improve the oral health of an individual is the toothbrush. Hence, it could play a role in initiation and transmission of infections and diseases. This study aimed at investigating the presence of haemolytic bacteria on used toothbrushes.
Methods: A close-ended questionnaire was designed and distributed to a hundred Nigerian students. This was employed to ascertain the attitudes of students towards their toothbrush. Twenty samples of already-used toothbrush (1-3…
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Abstract Microbial contamination is considered the most significant hazard associated with food. Data on pathogens present in foods are needed to provide valuable information on the exposure of consumers to certain food borne pathogens. Also, consumption habits among consumers may increase the risk of health hazards. This study aimed to assess some practices, signs and symptoms associated with consumption of soaked garri among university students, to also determine the presence and virulence characteristics of some bacteria in garri…
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The phytochemical and mineral compositions of selected vegetables in Minna metropolis were investigated using standard procedures. The results of the analysis showed that the concentrations of the secondary metabolites were as follows: alkaloids (4.00±2.00 to 9.33±4.16mg/100g), flavonoids (40.00±20.00 to 73.33±11.55 mg/100g), tannins (14.67±4.16 to 33.33±1.53 mg/100g), saponins (4.67±3.06 to 8.00±2.00 mg/100g), Phytates (7.56±4.36 to 68.83±17.47 mg/100g) and oxalate (19.65±0.08 to 34.39±0.28 mg/100g). B. oleracea had the highest amount of alkaloids (9.33±4.16mg/100g) while L.sativa had the least (4.00±2.0). All…
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The physicochemical properties and trace metal compositions of soil around selected pharmaceutical industries in Kaduna metropolis were investigated in this study. The mean pH, EC and TOM were 6.97, 341.3?S/cm and 3.11 respectively. Particle size analysis revealed a higher composition of sand fraction (78.7%). The concentration of the metals were in order Fe (1664.9 ?g/g), Zn (155.17 ?g/g), Mn (108.07 ?g/g), Cr (34.62 ?g/g), Pb (28.12 ?g/g), Cu (12.21 ?g/g) and Cd (0.04 ?g/g). There was a significant…
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This article contends that Chukwuma Ibezute is one of the 21st-century African creative writers whose narratives do not deviate from the concerns of the society but stand as a means of tackling some of the issues confronting society and this is in recognition of the fact that the 21st-century African creative writers have not failed to respond to issues affecting society in contemporary Africa literature. This entails that African literature like every other world literature is what exposes to the world the…
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Abstract
This article contends that Nigeria has lost her pride among the committee of nations as a result of the nefarious activities of visionless and selfish politicians who plunder the rich human and natural resources of the country. The article investigates the causes of corruption among Nigerian politicians using the poetry of Chukwuma Ibezute. The experiences of the citizens of Nigeria in the post-colony have been a vicious cycle of series of exploitation by corrupt politicians in suits and military uniforms. The…
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ABSTRACT
The paper begins by positing that African poetry in English expression has produced four generations of poets and then emphasises that the study is focused on the postmodernist generation, which is the latest generation of African poets in English expression. In the postmodernist generation, there are different kinds of poetic practices, but the one that is of interest in the paper is called a new historicist practice. This is explained as having to do with ‘the shifting and contradictory representations’ of ideas, issues or…
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Abstract
This article contends that spirits are perceived in different ways in different cultures. While some spirits are believed to take the form of animals like a horse with wings and a horn on its forehead, or a ram with a horn on its forehead, others are believed to take the form of humans with wings attached to their shoulders. One fascinating thing about these spirit creatures is that, as typical of spirits, they are at liberty to either make themselves visible…
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ABSTRACT

This article argues that African literature is a didactic literature. It points out that even though African literature has borrowed so much from European literary culture, especially in the areas of form and language; didacticism is not one of those concepts that African literature inherited from the European literary culture. By didacticism, it is implied that African literature is aimed at correcting, informing and educating its readers. These functions of didacticism are inherent in African oral traditional storytelling and are carried…
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ABSTRACT
Reported here are the results of a research project that examined the progress that has been made by Nigerian University libraries in computerization of their services. Fourteen university libraries that said that their libraries were automated were investigated using structured questionnaires. The research design was carried out in two stages by the use of structured questionnaires. The study population consisted of 47 university libraries, of which 24 were Federal, 17 state and 6 private. While the sample population was limited…
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ABSTRACT
The paper bridging the digital divide, review the multifaceted problem which has made Africa nations to lag behind the western developed countries. It traces the origin, causes and consequences which includes socio-economic factors, connectivity, technological access and literacy, and digital repositories. The efforts and initiatives by world leaders, international, regional, national, and non-governmental organizations, research Institutes and Industries to bridge the digital divide is examined. The author posit that African nations are a consuming nations historically and hence the continued flow of information…
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Sub- Saharan Africa remains by far the most affected region with about 24.5 million people living with HIV, representing a little below two-thirds of all people living with HIV in the world(Oladeinde et al., 2011 )

HIV infection is a major health concern in Nigeria, where it is estimated that about 2.9 million people are living with the virus (Monjok et al., 2009 ).


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Abstract:

The study examines large scale land deals and investment in Nigeria with a focus on women in rural communities. Large scale land deals as a development paradigm is recommended within the context of globalisation. Hence, promoters of globalisation argue that land deals and investment is a tool for poverty reduction and promotes sustainable agricultural and rural development. In the light of this assumption, development paradigm which emphasises privatisation and liberalisation of land adopted by the Nigerian government…
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ABSTRACT
Globalization as a paradigm of development emphasizes stabilization, structural adjustment, market forces, deregulation, privatization and liberalization of trade. The realization of sustainable development through these policies by the developing states is seriously in doubt. African countries are yet to attain sustainable development despite the various arguments in support of globalization .The integration of all countries into the global economy is seen as a veritable solution to their economic growth and development. In the light of this assumption,…
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ABSTARCT
Marriage  instability is  one  of  the  demographic  features  presides  over human  population  dynamics.  The  age-specific marriage  instability pattern  has  a discrete shape  for  all  human population,  to illustrate which,  a  number  of  parametric  models have  been recommended by  several  authors.  The  purpose  of  this  study  is  to build  up a  mathematical  model  for  fitting  marriage  instability rate  pattern  of  various geopolitical  zones  of  Nigeria.  Skew-logistic  probability density function is used for developing the model. The real data, to which…
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Abstract
Decision making process in stock trading is a complex one. There are numbers of technical indicators that are  used by traders to study trends of the market and make buying and selling decisions based on their observations.  This research seeks to deploy fuzzy inference to stock market, with four indicators used in technical analysis to aid in the decision making process in order to deal with probability. The four technical indicators are the Moving
Average Convergence/Divergence (MACD),…
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ABSTRACT
Sustainable energy management has become a high priority in Nigeria, as well as in many countries around the world. The majority of our energy stock comes from non-renewable fossil fuels, which are currently dwindling. Biofuels are one of the most promising solutions being researched to address this urgent problem. In particular, using transesterified Hura crepitans seed oil appears to be a promising method of producing biofuels, due to the availability of Hura crepitans trees in Nigeria, and…
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ABSTRACT:

Nut drying as a unit operation is cost intensive and requires energy intensity to achieve moisture content that would enhance effective nut cracking to yield whole kernels. Small Scale farmers mostly in the rural areas primarily employ open air drying method; as they are handicap with capital, technique and skill involved in modern methods of drying and determination of desired end moisture content. To develop cheap and easy approach in estimating any desired end moisture content; this…
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Abstract
The biosorption of copper (II) ions onto Luffa cylindrica was investigated. Luffa cylindrica, a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world, is characterized with the surface area, chemical bonds, bulk density, pore size distribution, microstructures, composition, morphology and elemental composition which are determined. Biosorption studies were carried out with varying dosage and the experimental data obtained were fitted to Pseudo-Second order kinetic model. The regression value obtained from the various doses studies ranged from 0.991 to 0.999.…
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Introduction
Environmental pollution due to the discharge of heavy metals from various industries, including metal plating, mining, painting and agricultural sources such as fertilizers and fungicidal sprays are causing significant concern because of their toxicity and threat to human life, especially when tolerance levels are exceeded (Gupta et al., 2009). The species with the most toxicological relevance found in the industrial effluents are the heavy metals. These species are bio-accumulative and not biodegradable over time (Abdel-Ghani et al., 2009).


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ABSTARCT
Crude groundnut oil was obtained by solvent extraction from groundnut seeds and refined. The crude and refined oils were then analyzed. The results obtained show that the acid value decreased from 2.890 to 0.420 mg/KOH. Free fatty acid decrease after refining from 2.82 to 2.02%; phospholipids decreased from 23.11 to 5.53%; copper content decreased from 0.37 to 0.0361% and iron decreased from 3.98 to 0.31%. These can be viewed as an improvement in the quality of the oil after refining. Refining did not have…
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Abstract
Hura crepitans seeds (HCS) from H. crepitans tree were collected and extracted by mechanical screw press at a constant pressure of 25 N/m2. A study in terms of proximate, elemental and fatty acid contents of the oil was investigated using standard analytical techniques. The results were as follows acid value 8.49 mg·KOH/g, flash point 249°C, cloud point 11°C, pour point -6°C, density 919.38 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity 59.88 Cst, Sulphur 0.0174%, water and residue 2.686%, brownish colouration, free fatty acid…
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ABSTRACT
The role of Aspergillus niger (fungus) and the use of 0.2 M sodium nitrate and 0.2 M sodium nitrite as nutrients on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water were investigated in this study. 2 samples of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water each had 0.2 M NaNO3 (aq) and 0.2 M NaNO2 (aq) and A. niger added and a control was monitored over a period of 49 days for physicochemical parameters such as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) and pH as indicators…
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ABSTRACT
Sponge-gourds, the fruit of Luffa cylindrica, are widely used throughout the world. It is an annual climbing crop which produces fruit containing fibrous vascular system. It is a summer season vegetable. At the moment, from the results of studies carried out on this wonder crop, it encourages the commercial cultivation of the crop because of its increasing economic importance. The objective of this review is to show the potentialities of this crop that is virtually found around the globe. Areas such as agriculture, medicine,…
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Abstract

Sponge-gourds, the fruit of Luffa cylindrica, are widely used throughout the world. It is an annual climbing crop which produces fruit containing fibrous vascular system. Produced water is any water that is present in a reservoir with the hydrocarbon resource and is produced to the surface with the crude oil or natural gas. The residual metallic ion concentrations were determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The physicochemical properties of Produced water before discharge or reinjection into the waterways and reservoir and after treatment…
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ABSTRACT
Vegetable oils have traditionally been applied in food uses, but recent trends suggest their economic usefulness as industrial fluids. Increasing crude oil prices and emphasis on the development of renewable, environmentally friendly industrial fluids have brought vegetable oils to a place of prominence. Biodegradability provides an indication of the persistence of any particular substance in the environment and is the yardstick for assessing the eco friendliness of substances. The superior biodegradation of vegetable oils in comparison with mineral based oils has been demonstrated
severally,…
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ABSTARCT
Heavy metals released by a number of industrial processes are major pollutants in marine, ground, industrial and even treated wastewaters. Some conventional methods of treatment, generate toxic sludge, hence the study of biomaterials as adsorbents. The residual metallic ion concentrations were determined. The results obtained after contacting for 120 min showed that Chrysophyllum albidum seeds achieved the percent removal of 76.2, 63.0, 56.4 and 42.3 for Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ ions respectively. The percent removal of Ni2+ ions was 66.5 with an effective…
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ABSTARCT
Vegetable oils has become more attractive recently because of its economical benefits as they are used as components in many manufactured products and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. The determination of the minor components is of great importance in establishing the oil quality and their genuineness. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the constituents is done by gas chromatography of compounds or their derivatives. High precision in the gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters is possible with careful…
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ABSTRACT
The uses of the various kinds of mineral oils in various industrial situations have made them an indispensable ingredient of the industrialization and development that has characterized the past century. Recent focus on health, safety and the preservation of the environment has turned the searchlight to the effects of mineral oils on the environment when they are accidentally spilled, or intentionally disposed of. Biodegradation, which provides an indication of the persistence of a
particular substance in the environment, is the yardstick for assessing…
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ABSTRACT
The present study was undertaken to compare the adsorption efficiency of activated carbon prepared from animal horns (AHC), which is both a waste and a pollutant and a commercial activated carbon (CAC) with respect to uptake of the organic components responsible for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of industrial wastewater. The adsorption process was examined in terms of its equilibria and its kinetics. The effect of pH, contact time and adsorbent dose were investigated. The most effective pH was found to be 5 for…
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ABSTRACT
The shelf life of vegetable oils in food uses and their applicability in industrial situations is greatly dependent on their oxidative stabilities. Methods of improving oxidative stability values currently available include genetic modifications, compositional changes via chemical means, as well as the inhibition of oxidation by means of substances known as antioxidants. This paper reviews the properties of vegetable oils which predispose them to auto oxidation reactions, explores the nature and mechanisms of the operation of antioxidants in brief, and finally summarizes current research…
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ABSTARCT
Heavy metals discharged into the environment from various industries constitute one of the major causes of water and soil pollution. Conventional methods for the removal of heavy metals from waste waters are often cost prohibitive. These constraints have caused the search for alternative technologies for metal sequestering to cost-effective environmentally acceptable levels. One of the exploitations is the use of biomaterials. The results obtained after contacting for 120 min showed that sour sop seeds achieved the removal of 77.6, 68.5, 56.4and 40.6% for Cu2+…
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ABSTRACT
The use of an alternative technique as a management strategy for the decontamination of hydrocarbonbased pollution in soil has been advanced in this work. The study investigated the degradation of anthracene, a three-ringed benzene derivative, in clay soil at ambient conditions under the influence of hydrophilic compound (carbon), thermally activated at temperatures of 300, 500, 700 and 900oC. The soil (500 g) was impacted with 1:1 of the contaminant anthracene and activated carbon from groundnut shell in a water medium at a flow rate…
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ABSTRACT
This paper examines the potentials of Bioenergy and Biofuels Technology Development in Nigeria. Biomass conversion technologies may be biological (fermentation of sugars to ethanol; anaerobic digestion of biomass for biogas), chemical (trans-etherification of lipids to biodiesel, or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of bio-syngas to synthetic hydrocarbon fuels); or thermal (biomass gasification to bio-syngas for further processing, or pyrolysis); and a combination of some of, or all, the processes (biomass gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels with possibilities for power generation; biomass…
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ABSTRACT
The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water using Aspergillus niger and varying concentrations of sodium nitrate was investigated in this study. Five samples of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water innoculated with A. niger containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 M NaNO3(aq) and the control was monitored for parameters such as Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), pH and Turbidity over a period of forty nine days. The results obtained showed that the sample remediated with 0.4M NaNO3 (aq) showed the greatest THC…
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ABSTRACT
The physico-chemical properties of wastewater effluent from the plants of a brewering industry in Nigeria have been analyzed. The lead ions removal capacity of Granular activated carbon from animal horns and its comparison with commercial granulated activated carbon (GAC) was studied. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out for the adsorption of Pb2+. The equilibrium sorption data fitted well the Freundlich model. The experimental data, when applied to the first and second-order kinetic models, followed both kinetic models with r?2; = 0.898 for…
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Abstract.

The hydrocarbon content of Jatropha curcas seed oil obtained from Oleh Community in Delta State, NIFOR farm in Edo State and Ikabigbo in Edo State represented as samples X, Y and Z respectively were investigated using Gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector. The predominant alkanes found in the oil samples are n-Eicosane (C20H42) and n-Docosane (C22H46), while the major polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon found in the oil samples is chrysene. Sample X has the highest percentage of n-Eicosane (65.72%), sample Y has 35.56%…
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Abstract
Pol icy ma ker s ar e int er es t ed i n knowi ng the welfa r e ef f ect of the many devel opment p rogr ammes implement ed i n rural cent r es i n Niger i a. This s t u dy a ppli ed stochast ic dominance approach to show whether the aggrega te welfa r e in rural cent r es was bet t er t han i n u rban cent r…
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Abstract
The study employed econometric techniques to generate information on the aggregate net economic damages and benefits of climate change on farm value. Such information is crucial to shed light on how much to compensate the sector. The study was limited to cross sectional analysis of farms at a point in time and therefore a static analysis. Climate change impact was found to be huge for the whole country with impact variation across agricultural zones. It concludes that the ability of smallholder farms to sustain…
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Abstract
The aim of this article is to synthesize the various views of gender inequality and various indicators used to measure it. It argues that women lag behind men in most indicators of socioeconomic development and they constitute the majority of the poor, the unemployed and the socially disadvantaged. Productive differences as espoused by the traditional neoclassical as well as the institutions and markets advancement are not sufficient to explain gender inequality. The political economy view of power and self-interest enshrined at the household, community…
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ABSTRACT
A common narrative on Africa’s development process is that specific country policies of income growth and redistribution are necessary for poverty reduction. For growth theoreticians, economic growth must be pursued while for political economists, redistribution is necessary to cushion the detrimental effect of reform policies. These views appear to converge in the many policies and programmes implemented over the years by the Nigerian government. In light of this, we accounted for the effect of these variables using two recent national household survey data sets collected…
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Abstract
While the production of rice has shown increasing trend both in area cultivated and output in the last 5 decades, yield appears very low and below the average potential for the major rice producing ecologies. Changes in climate and atmospheric composition can negatively affect food supply at the household level because climatic factors are believed to be the strongest elements influencing crop yield. While Nigeria’s government recognizes climate change adaptation as an important developmental issue and the mainstreaming in economic planning begun, there is…
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Abstract
Beyond the recent hike in global food prices, the markets for food commodity are likely to have entered a period of strong instability given the poor state of infrastructure and the recurrent phenomenon of seasonal variation in food. Whether the approaches based on the management of buffer stocks or the market based approach complemented by a few safety nets, the effectiveness has been limited. Yet the challenge of stabilizing prices is more than ever relevant to avoid political…
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Abstract
This study analyzes fiscal federalism and economic growth nexus in Nigeria to synthesize the extent to which revenue allocation formula has affected the path of economic growth and sustainable national development. The work uses the methodology of Error correction model (ECM) in conjunction with diagnostic tests of variables using Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root tests and Johansen Co-integration tests for robust policy recommendations. Using the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as the dependent variable and Revenue allocation to the three levels of government, inflation and lending interest…
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ABSTRACT
This paper examines the contentious issue of ownership and control of the oil industry in Nigeria and how successive constitutions and other enactments vested ownership and control of the oil industry in the hands of two of the three critical stakeholders of the oil industry, the federal government (FGN) and the multinational oil companies (MOCs) leaving out the communities who live on the land where the actual exploration and production takes place. The Federal Government and the…
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ABSTRACT
This paper examines the role played by foreign interests and intervention in the nature and manifestation of these sorts of insurgency in Nigeria. Chief among the factors that can motivate and sustain violence in a political system are factors that originate or come from outside the borders of the country involved. As forms of political violence, insurgency and terrorism in the Nigerian context pits the state against groups with perceived discontent in a struggle that has resulted…
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ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to assess the molluscicidal potency of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roots, leaves, bark, and seeds of Ficus exasperata(Vahl) against juvenile and adult Biomphalaria pfeifferithat are intermediate hosts of schistosome species causing intestinal schistosomiasis. Snails were collected and reared in the laboratory. Plants were identified, authenticated, andMphytochemically screened. Cold water and organic solvent (ethanol) extraction of different parts of the plant were carried out. The walls of the digestive tract of the snails were histopathologically…
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ABSTARCT

Malaria vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex are made up six species of mosquitoes that are stable and are highly efficient vectors. This group comprises of major and minor vect ors, some of which are responsible for transmission of the most deadly strain of malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum . The evolutionary history of this species group was inferred using publically available DNA sequence data. Th e retrieved sequences were aligned usi ng CLUSTAL W; evolutionary history was inferred using…
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Abstract
Cooperative banking is now a global phenomenon but going through the history of banking in Nigeria there is nothing to show that Nigeria had actually established any cooperative bank. There were the defunct Nigerian cooperative and Commerce bank, or Cooperative Bank Plc, Nigerian Agricultural and Cooperative bank etc. They were never cooperative banks in the true sense, they all operated Commercial banks or at best as micro finance or primary mortgage institutions. This paper unfolded the enormity of the impact cooperative…
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Abstract
Pension means regular payments made by the state to the disabled, widowed or by a former employer to an employee after long service or a periodical payment made especially by government, company or an employer in consideration of past services.1 This paper seeks to review Nigerian pension laws with a view to identifying whether a state can enact a pension law to grant pension and gratuities to an ex-governor and if not what happens to the pensions…
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A B S T R A C T
Mechanical machining processes are common manufacturing strategies to re-shape materials to desired specification. The mechanistic approach has revealed the mechanics of the machining processes with various parameters determined. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of swept angle optimization and their influence on the specific cutting energy in milling AISI 1045 steel alloy. This is achieved by varying the step over at different feed rate values in order to determine the…
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Abstract

The techno-economic effects of diesel-kerosene blends on the operation of a direct ignition (DI) diesel engine were investigated using a stationary LD 20-D !issan diesel engine. Standard experimental procedures were adopted. The values of pressure data of all petroleum fuel blends were higher when compared with that obtained when the engine was run on diesel fuel. However, due to the deterioration of combustion process caused by too much kerosene at 40% kerosene mixing, pressure data for 30% kerosene blend were higher…
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Abstract :

A domestic passive solar crop dryer for agricultural applications and purposes has been successfully designed and constructed. The dryer is an integral or direct mode type made from locally available materials such as plywood, plane glass, aluminium sheets, hardwood, mild steel, paints, etc. the dimensions of the dryer is 0.7m × 0.5m × 0.7m / 0.5m (length × width × height). The maximum temperature of the dryer recorded was 82°C and the corresponding ambient temperature was 30°C. The dryer was used to…
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Abstract

Many engines have been destroyed as a result of the constant use of wrong petroleum products on them. This paper attempts to educate people on the need to know the right fuel for different engines in the developing countries. Using the wrong fuel on an engine has always resulted from the adulteration of petroleum products by our major and independent marketers of these products in the developing countries so as to maximize profit at the expense of these engines. A lot…
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Abstract:

We have seen that reserves are those quantities of petroleum claimed to be commercially recoverable by application of development projects to known accumulations under defined conditions and it must satisfy four criteria which must be: discovered through one or more exploratory wells, recoverable using existing technology, commercially viable and remaining in the ground. These conditions have actually be met by some oil producing countries but how long will they rely on it to maintain a stable economic growth and…
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ABSTRACT

Solar panels convert sun energy directly to electric energy using the principle of photovoltaic effect. Exploratory research and development has shown that Nigeria has high solar energy potential with an average sunshine of about 10 hours per day throughout the year. This huge renewable energy resource can be converted to electric energy for the benefit of mankind. The major challenges facing the development and implementation of photovoltaic power generation includes, finance, non-availability of process equipment, lack of…
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 ABSTRACT
Transformers are electromagnetic energy transformation devices which operate on the principles of electromagnetic induction. The devices transform alternating current voltage from one value to another at a constant frequency. This work reviews the development of these functional devices using locally available materials in Nigeria. The design stages, material selection, manufacturing techniques, performance parameters such as efficiency, voltage regulation and power factor were also discussed. Some applications of the locally developed transformers were presented. The possibilities of producing larger power transformers for electrical power…
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ABSTRACT
This paper examines the controlled variation of the r.m.s value of the alternating voltage applied to a load through an inverse parallel thyristor pair. Analyses of the first fundamental component of the Fourier series of the load current from the laboratory test results are present. Other dependent variable such as distortion factor, displacement factor and
displacement angle were examined using a firing angle (?) or 300 for the thyristors. The thyristor used was TIC 106M, with current rating (IT(ava) Max). of…
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ABSTRACT

Zinc oxide varistors are functional ceramic based semiconductor devices with highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics similar to back-to-back zener diodes. Its development and implementation in protecting electronic, electrical and power distribution and transmission circuits from the destructive voltage due to lightning and switching surges has been on for almost four decades. The raw materials for the mass production of these protective devices are available in Nigeria. This work is aimed at revealing some of the indigenous approaches adopted…
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ABSTRACT

The nonlinear properties of varistors, which are composed of ZnO-Bi2O3-based ceramics produced by conventional ceramic process using locally available materials in Nigeria, were investigated at various CoO contents. The increase of CoO improves the densification of ceramics and could withstand a drop impact test about 2m high. The highest nonlinearity was obtained from the varistor with 1.0 mol% CoO, with 70.8 in nonlinear exponent, varistor voltage of 125V and 2?A in leakage current. The further CoO addition…
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ABSTRACT

The successful development of zinc oxide varistors using locally available materials in Nigeria is presented in this work. This functional semiconductor device protects circuit against voltage surges. The physical dimensions, electrical properties, capacitance, the effect of supply frequency variation on the capacitance of the locally fabricated ZnO varistors were examined and a comparison of these properties with the imported ones undertaken. The composition of the samples includes ZnO 97-100mol% and 0-3mol% additives (Bi2O3 and CoO). The compositions…
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ABSTRACT

The successful development of a 1.5kW, 220Volts, 50Hz, single phase industrial electric oven using equipment and components available in our local electrical and electronic stores is presented in this work. This device would be suitable for de-moisturizing damped electrical equipment and components The Nickel-Alumel heat resistance element used in this work has a maximum temperature range of 400oC. This heating element was housed in the roof of the heating chamber having a volume of 91656cm3. The internal…
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ABSTRACT

The maximum power points of a 100watts, 17.5 volts, MBF:100 type solar panel mounted in Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria for different hours of the day, under various resistive load conditions had been presented. The photovoltaic module exhibits a non-linear irradiance dependent voltage – current characteristics and the maximum power point varies with solar insolation. The maximum power point of 49.53watts occurs at 1.00pm when the sun is overhead. The result shows that the power generated varies…
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ABSTRACT
Varistors provides excellent protection of electric circuits and equipment against voltage surges which may have frequencies related or unrelated to the power system network. The effects of frequency variation on the electrical parameters of zinc oxide varistor developed in Nigeria using locally available materials are presented in this work. The electrical parameters of interest of the zinc oxide varistors examined were the voltage, current and capacitance. The result obtained revealed that an inverse relationship exist between capacitances and…
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ABSTRACT
Molecular typing techniques have been employed in the epidemiological study of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) to identify the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of SCCmec types in the isolates obtained from four hospitals in south-south, Nigeria. A total of 149 staphylococcal isolates were obtained from clinical samples from March through September, 2015. They were identified and SCCmec typing was done using single-target PCR. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci…
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ABSTRACT
The possibility and economic implication of the commercialization of zinc oxide varistors developed using locally available materials in Nigeria is presented in this work. The study revealed that Nigeria has 4.63 metric tons reserve of Zinc which is the major constituents of zinc oxide varistors. The successful commercialization of these functional, protective semiconductor devices would create employment opportunity, income and wealth. The financial analysis revealed that the investment is a profitable venture with a profit ratio of…
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ABSTRACT
The effect of load variation on 1.4kVA, 24/220volts, 50Hz, single phase inverter is presented in this work. The inverter is fed from a 120A-H, 24volts battery to produce a 220volts, 50 Hz to power alternating current loads. The no-load voltage was recorded to be 24volts. Eight, 200watts filament bulbs were used as loads in this experiment. The load was varied in step increment of 200watts by bulb addition. As the load increases, the load current and voltage and terminal…
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Abstract
Background: Wound infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, aetiology and susceptibility profile of bacterial agents of wound infection among in- and- out patients at a rural tertiary hospital in Nigeria, within a 5 year period. Methods: Wound swabs collected from 156 out-patients and 353 in-patients were, cultured and microbial isolates identified using standard methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done on bacterial isolates. Results: The prevalence of wound infection in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 was 71.4%,…
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METHODS: Clean-catch urine was collected from 220 pregnant women attending a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Urine samples were processed, and microbial isolates identified using standard bacteriological procedures. A cross-sectional study design was used.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women was 55.0% and significantly affected by gestational age and parity. The most prevalent etiologic agent observed was Escherichia coli. With the exception of the flouroquinolones, aminoglycoside, and Amoxicillin-cluvanate, the activity…
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Abstract
Aim: To determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in Okada, a rural community in Nigeria, and the effect
of age and gender on its prevalence as well as the etiologic agents and the susceptibility profile of the bacterial agents. Patients and Method: Clean-catch midstream urine was collected from 514 patients (49 males and 465 females). The urine samples were processed and microbial isolates identified. Susceptibility testing was performed on all bacterial isolates. Result: The prevalence of urinary tract…
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Abstract
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence. Methods: Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration Results: The prevalence of malaria infection was (OR=4.35 95% CI=1.213, 15.600; p=0.016) higher among primigravidae (92.1%). Pregnant women (38.5%)…
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ABSTARCT

Intestinal parasitic infections are associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data on prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is sparse in rural Nigeria. Against this background, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections within a four year period in the rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Fecal samples obtained from 1528 patients (consisting of 740 males and 788 females) presenting with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis at the Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital, Okada were examined…
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Malaria is the world's leading parasitic disease and affects approximately 40% of the world's population (ap-proximately 2.4 billion people) in more than 100 countries (1). A life threatening illness arising from malaria infection, usually referred to as severe malaria, may occur in 1 – 2 % of infection (2, 3). Of the five clinically relevant Plasmodium species (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, P. knowlesi), P. falciparum mainly accounts for severe malaria, an important cause…
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ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS are two worldwide public health concerns.[1] Co-infection of these two diseases has been considered to be a major obstacle for the global efforts in reaching the goals for the prevention of HIV and TB infections.[1] HIV infection is a risk factor predisposing to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and progression to active disease.[2] Findings from some studies indicate that peopleliving with HIV have a higher risk of developing multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) which is associated with increased…
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ABSTARCT

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a teething global health problem. Sub?Saharan Africa remains by far the most affected region, with 24.5 million people living with HIV, representing a little below two?thirds of all people living with HIV.[1] HIV epidemic affects females severely in the sub?region, and women of reproductive age make up 57% of adults living with HIV.[1] HIV infection in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome,[2] the effect of which includes among others infectious…
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ABSTARCT

Many plants with reported medicinal value have been demonstrated to exert a protective effect on the liver and some, with the ability of lowering the blood lipid level have also been elucidated. This study shows the effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from  Vernonia amygdalina  on the plasma lipid profile as well as on the level of the liver biomarker in the plasma of normal rats. The animals were distributed into two sets of four groups with five animals…
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ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to exam ine the phytochemical screening, ch emical composition and antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts of both the leaves and stems of  Cymbopogon citratus.  For proximate analysis,  results for the leaves on the Moisture content, ash content, fat content, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate were: 13.50, 11.17, 10.00, 19.54, 17.50 and 28.29% while that of the stem were: 7.98, 14.29, 13.50, 12.5, 17.50 and 34.23%, respectively. Also, the extracts was screened against…
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ABSTARCT

Hepatiatis B and C viral infections are global health problems.Data on the prevalence of these viruses among preganat women in rural Nigeria is missing. This study was carried out with a view to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Virus infections in pregnant women in Okada Community of Edo State,Nigeria and assess risk factors for their transmission. Venous blood was collected from two hundred and sixty seven (267) pregnant women with age ranging from 13-42 years. A…
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ABSTARCT

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS are global health concerns. Sexually transmitted infections are high among young people in Africa, largely due to high risk behaviour and neglect of potential preventive measures. Particularly distressing is the fact that nearly 3.3 million youth are living with HIV/AIDS in sub Saharan Africa, and 76% of these youth are women(1). In sub Saharan Africa young women within the age group of 15-24 years are 3-4 times more likely to be infected with…
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Background:

Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. Aim: This cross?sectional descriptivestudy aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics mong Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A totalof 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained…
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ABSTARCT

The protective role of ethanolic extract of unripe pulp of  Carica papaya (fruit), against potassium-bromate induced tissue damage in wistar rats was investigated. The animals were grouped into four groups (A, B, C, D) of five rats. Group A was administered 1  mL of 0.25 M sucrose solution. 60 mg/kg of Potassium bromate KBrO3 was administered orally to rats in groups B,  C and D. Groups C and D were pretreated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extracts for…
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Aim: This study aim to evaluate the modulatory ef fect of ethanolic leaf extract of  Annona muricata against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) -induced hepatic toxicity in rats.    

Methodology:  Twenty- four (24) male albino rats divided into four (4) groups of six (6) rats each were used for the study. Group 1 served  as control and was untreated, group 2 and 3 were pre -treated with 400  mg/kg Annona muricata  for one week while group 3 and 4 each received a single…
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Abstract
Introduction: Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) is a potent hepatotoxin, carcinogen and mutagen whose toxicity is mediated by its
reactive  metabolites  and  not  by  the  parent  compound.  The  antihepatotoxic  efficacy  of  ethanolic  leaf  extract  of Vernonia
amygdalina against DMN-induced liver damage in rats thus, needs to be investigated.  
Methodology: Rats were given DMN, at a single dose of 12 g/kg body weight orally on day 8 after pretreatment with 400mg/kg
Vernonia amygdalina for 7days and…
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ABSTARCT

Low birth weight (LBW) remains a global health challenge with both short and long term adverse consequences1. It is an important indicator of the health status of an infant and a principal factor that determines the infant survival, physical and mental development in the future2. Its etiology is complex and may vary from one setting to another. Delivery of LBW neonates has been associated with pre- term deliveries, anaemia, malnutrition and poor use of orthodox ante-natal services1,3,4.These are particularly…
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Abstract
In this study, the protective effect of   Vernonia amygdalina ethanolic leaf extract against hepatic fibrosis induced by repeated
intermittent administration of  Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) was investigated in rats. A total of  48 rats divided into 4 groups
were used. Group 1 served as control, Group 2 received 200mg/kg Vernonia amygdalina only for 14days, Group 3 received
200mg/kg Vernonia amygdalina for 14 days followed by intraperitoneal administration of 10mg/kg DMN on first three days
of…
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ABSTARCT

All procedures in the diagnostic medical laboratories are not without associated risks. Laboratory personnel handling clinical samples containing highly infectious agents are at a high risk of contracting laboratory-acquired infection. This risk is particularly high for those working in microbiological laboratories [1,2]. Injuries through infected needles and sharp cutting instruments encounteredin diagnostic procedures represent potential sources of laboratory-acquired infections.


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Proximate composition  and  phytochemical analyses  were  carried  out  on  the
leaves of Annona  muricata using  standard  methods.  The  result of  the  proximate  composition
showed  that  the  leaves contained 88.99% dry  matter,  11.01%  moisture,  25%  crude  protein,
14.96%  ash,  22.20%  crude  fiber, 21.22  %  fat  and 16.62%  carbohydrate  contents.  The
phytochemicals  detected  in  the ethanolic  leaf  extracts  were flavonoids,  alkaloids,  cardiac
glycoside, tannins, triterpenoid, saponin and reducing sugar. The findings indicate that Annona READ MORE Download Staff Profile