Department Of Chemical Engineering Journals


Abstract.

The hydrocarbon content of Jatropha curcas seed oil obtained from Oleh Community in Delta State, NIFOR farm in Edo State and Ikabigbo in Edo State represented as samples X, Y and Z respectively were investigated using Gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector. The predominant alkanes found in the oil samples are n-Eicosane (C20H42) and n-Docosane (C22H46), while the major polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon found in the oil samples is chrysene. Sample X has the highest percentage of n-Eicosane (65.72%), sample Y has 35.56%…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
The physico-chemical properties of wastewater effluent from the plants of a brewering industry in Nigeria have been analyzed. The lead ions removal capacity of Granular activated carbon from animal horns and its comparison with commercial granulated activated carbon (GAC) was studied. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out for the adsorption of Pb2+. The equilibrium sorption data fitted well the Freundlich model. The experimental data, when applied to the first and second-order kinetic models, followed both kinetic models with r?2; = 0.898 for…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water using Aspergillus niger and varying concentrations of sodium nitrate was investigated in this study. Five samples of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water innoculated with A. niger containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 M NaNO3(aq) and the control was monitored for parameters such as Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), pH and Turbidity over a period of forty nine days. The results obtained showed that the sample remediated with 0.4M NaNO3 (aq) showed the greatest THC…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
This paper examines the potentials of Bioenergy and Biofuels Technology Development in Nigeria. Biomass conversion technologies may be biological (fermentation of sugars to ethanol; anaerobic digestion of biomass for biogas), chemical (trans-etherification of lipids to biodiesel, or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of bio-syngas to synthetic hydrocarbon fuels); or thermal (biomass gasification to bio-syngas for further processing, or pyrolysis); and a combination of some of, or all, the processes (biomass gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels with possibilities for power generation; biomass…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
The use of an alternative technique as a management strategy for the decontamination of hydrocarbonbased pollution in soil has been advanced in this work. The study investigated the degradation of anthracene, a three-ringed benzene derivative, in clay soil at ambient conditions under the influence of hydrophilic compound (carbon), thermally activated at temperatures of 300, 500, 700 and 900oC. The soil (500 g) was impacted with 1:1 of the contaminant anthracene and activated carbon from groundnut shell in a water medium at a flow rate…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      



ABSTARCT
Heavy metals discharged into the environment from various industries constitute one of the major causes of water and soil pollution. Conventional methods for the removal of heavy metals from waste waters are often cost prohibitive. These constraints have caused the search for alternative technologies for metal sequestering to cost-effective environmentally acceptable levels. One of the exploitations is the use of biomaterials. The results obtained after contacting for 120 min showed that sour sop seeds achieved the removal of 77.6, 68.5, 56.4and 40.6% for Cu2+…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
The shelf life of vegetable oils in food uses and their applicability in industrial situations is greatly dependent on their oxidative stabilities. Methods of improving oxidative stability values currently available include genetic modifications, compositional changes via chemical means, as well as the inhibition of oxidation by means of substances known as antioxidants. This paper reviews the properties of vegetable oils which predispose them to auto oxidation reactions, explores the nature and mechanisms of the operation of antioxidants in brief, and finally summarizes current research…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
The present study was undertaken to compare the adsorption efficiency of activated carbon prepared from animal horns (AHC), which is both a waste and a pollutant and a commercial activated carbon (CAC) with respect to uptake of the organic components responsible for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of industrial wastewater. The adsorption process was examined in terms of its equilibria and its kinetics. The effect of pH, contact time and adsorbent dose were investigated. The most effective pH was found to be 5 for…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
The uses of the various kinds of mineral oils in various industrial situations have made them an indispensable ingredient of the industrialization and development that has characterized the past century. Recent focus on health, safety and the preservation of the environment has turned the searchlight to the effects of mineral oils on the environment when they are accidentally spilled, or intentionally disposed of. Biodegradation, which provides an indication of the persistence of a
particular substance in the environment, is the yardstick for assessing…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTARCT
Vegetable oils has become more attractive recently because of its economical benefits as they are used as components in many manufactured products and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. The determination of the minor components is of great importance in establishing the oil quality and their genuineness. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the constituents is done by gas chromatography of compounds or their derivatives. High precision in the gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters is possible with careful…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTARCT
Heavy metals released by a number of industrial processes are major pollutants in marine, ground, industrial and even treated wastewaters. Some conventional methods of treatment, generate toxic sludge, hence the study of biomaterials as adsorbents. The residual metallic ion concentrations were determined. The results obtained after contacting for 120 min showed that Chrysophyllum albidum seeds achieved the percent removal of 76.2, 63.0, 56.4 and 42.3 for Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ ions respectively. The percent removal of Ni2+ ions was 66.5 with an effective…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Abstract

Sponge-gourds, the fruit of Luffa cylindrica, are widely used throughout the world. It is an annual climbing crop which produces fruit containing fibrous vascular system. Produced water is any water that is present in a reservoir with the hydrocarbon resource and is produced to the surface with the crude oil or natural gas. The residual metallic ion concentrations were determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The physicochemical properties of Produced water before discharge or reinjection into the waterways and reservoir and after treatment…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
Sponge-gourds, the fruit of Luffa cylindrica, are widely used throughout the world. It is an annual climbing crop which produces fruit containing fibrous vascular system. It is a summer season vegetable. At the moment, from the results of studies carried out on this wonder crop, it encourages the commercial cultivation of the crop because of its increasing economic importance. The objective of this review is to show the potentialities of this crop that is virtually found around the globe. Areas such as agriculture, medicine,…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
The role of Aspergillus niger (fungus) and the use of 0.2 M sodium nitrate and 0.2 M sodium nitrite as nutrients on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water were investigated in this study. 2 samples of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted water each had 0.2 M NaNO3 (aq) and 0.2 M NaNO2 (aq) and A. niger added and a control was monitored over a period of 49 days for physicochemical parameters such as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) and pH as indicators…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Abstract
Hura crepitans seeds (HCS) from H. crepitans tree were collected and extracted by mechanical screw press at a constant pressure of 25 N/m2. A study in terms of proximate, elemental and fatty acid contents of the oil was investigated using standard analytical techniques. The results were as follows acid value 8.49 mg·KOH/g, flash point 249°C, cloud point 11°C, pour point -6°C, density 919.38 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity 59.88 Cst, Sulphur 0.0174%, water and residue 2.686%, brownish colouration, free fatty acid…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTARCT
Crude groundnut oil was obtained by solvent extraction from groundnut seeds and refined. The crude and refined oils were then analyzed. The results obtained show that the acid value decreased from 2.890 to 0.420 mg/KOH. Free fatty acid decrease after refining from 2.82 to 2.02%; phospholipids decreased from 23.11 to 5.53%; copper content decreased from 0.37 to 0.0361% and iron decreased from 3.98 to 0.31%. These can be viewed as an improvement in the quality of the oil after refining. Refining did not have…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Introduction
Environmental pollution due to the discharge of heavy metals from various industries, including metal plating, mining, painting and agricultural sources such as fertilizers and fungicidal sprays are causing significant concern because of their toxicity and threat to human life, especially when tolerance levels are exceeded (Gupta et al., 2009). The species with the most toxicological relevance found in the industrial effluents are the heavy metals. These species are bio-accumulative and not biodegradable over time (Abdel-Ghani et al., 2009).


READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Abstract
The biosorption of copper (II) ions onto Luffa cylindrica was investigated. Luffa cylindrica, a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world, is characterized with the surface area, chemical bonds, bulk density, pore size distribution, microstructures, composition, morphology and elemental composition which are determined. Biosorption studies were carried out with varying dosage and the experimental data obtained were fitted to Pseudo-Second order kinetic model. The regression value obtained from the various doses studies ranged from 0.991 to 0.999.…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT:

Nut drying as a unit operation is cost intensive and requires energy intensity to achieve moisture content that would enhance effective nut cracking to yield whole kernels. Small Scale farmers mostly in the rural areas primarily employ open air drying method; as they are handicap with capital, technique and skill involved in modern methods of drying and determination of desired end moisture content. To develop cheap and easy approach in estimating any desired end moisture content; this…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


ABSTRACT
Sustainable energy management has become a high priority in Nigeria, as well as in many countries around the world. The majority of our energy stock comes from non-renewable fossil fuels, which are currently dwindling. Biofuels are one of the most promising solutions being researched to address this urgent problem. In particular, using transesterified Hura crepitans seed oil appears to be a promising method of producing biofuels, due to the availability of Hura crepitans trees in Nigeria, and…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      



This publication highlights the investigation carried out on biodiesel oil seed crops farming.
The main focus of this write-up is on the net energy balance of biodiesel compared to other
fuels and the benefits of biodiesel oilseed crops. Other issues considered are the problems
and prospects of biodiesel oilseed crops farming as well as the oil content and the
kilogramme oil yield per hectare


READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


The purpose of this paper is to present a report on the characterization of crude glycerol derived
from biodiesel processed from cashew, melon and rubber seed oils. Crude glycerol is a coproduct
from biodiesel production. To make the crude glycerol economically useful, it is
imperative to characterize it. Investigative tests were carried out on the vegetable oils and on
the crude glycerol that were separated from the biodiesel fuels with a separating funnel. The
fatty acid profile was obtained using…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Over the years, the use of domestic cleansers which increased cleaned, healthy and sanitized
environment has become vast and enormous in the society at large, as such, the need for products
with high cleansing power has become inevitable and the order of the day. This study focused
mainly on the production of scouring domestic powder with high cleansing soap properties,
capable of meeting with specifications, it is basically composed of a fatty acid, an alkaline
product and an abrasive agent,…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


This research work produced adhesive that could adequately be utilized by the wood and paper
industry. From the analysis, it is observed that working properties of the wood adhesives
produced fall within standard values. The wood adhesives are cheap and it is equally known as
water resistance adhesive because it cannot be separated by water. Most of the raw materials
were sourced locally. Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) is the major component and contributes more of
the adhesive composition. Wood adhesives have…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Polymer catalyst for biodiesel production was developed and the catalytic activity dependence on preparation
condition, ranging from adsorbed radiation dose, reaction temperature and retention time were investigated in
this study. The catalyst was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene
onto a polyethylene substrate followed by amination with trimethylamine and was further treated with sodium
hydroxide solution. Gamma radiation was directed at a constant rate of 20kGy/hr on four different samples of
polyethylene substrates at different exposure times ranging from…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Nigeria is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). That
not withstanding it is an importer of refined petroleum products. This paper explores the
development of small-scale modular private refineries and large-scale conventional
private refineries. Some of the major problems encountered in the process of developing
private refineries in Nigeria were discussed. These are government regulation of refined
petroleum product prices, low profit margin in a regulated economy, hostile environment,
lack of funds and lack of crude…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


This study deals with the mass transfer evaluation of the graft polymerization of 4-
choromethyl styrene unto irradiated polyethylene substrate. Experimental data were obtained
from literature. These data were analysed and mass transfer parameters such as DE, DL, KL,
were evaluated from these data using correlations such as the Wilke-Chang equation for
estimating diffusivities, the Newman plot for estimating effective diffusivities. The mass
transfer parameters increased with temperature as expected. Values of DL obtained were
9.992 × 10-10 m2/s, 1.258…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


The behaviours and performances of an ideal grafting of 4-Chloromethylstyrene onto
polyethylene substrates were predicted/discussed using designed models. MATLAB was
used as the model simulator due to its very broad and all-encompassing functions and
capabilities. The models designed were compared and contrasted with one another and also
with the experimental data for validation. Inferences were drawn based on the findings and
within the confines of the simplifying assumptions made. Conventional adsorption models
developed and tested include; Lagergren pseudo first order…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


The oil and gas industry is an essential pillar of the nation’s economy. The challenges in
the industry can be solved through public private partnership. Pipeline vandalism,
frequent changes in national oil and gas company management and its incoherent policy,
oil bunkering, insurgency, fluctuating crude oil prices, business joint venture and decay
of infrastructures, gas flaring and gas pricing were identified as the key problems. The
solutions are: The Federal Government should develop national plan for critical
infrastructure. The pipelines…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Nigeria is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
That not withstanding it is an importer of refined petroleum products. This paper
explores the development of small-scale modular private refineries and large-scale
conventional private refineries. Some of the major problems encountered in the process
of developing private refineries in Nigeria were discussed. These are government
regulation of refined petroleum product prices, low profit margin in a regulated
economy, hostile environment, lack of funds and lack of crude…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


The present dependency on petroleum based bio-plastics is not only harmful to the environment
but also to the economy. A remarkable research in the production and applications of plastics in
the renewable energy has being ongoing. The problems, solutions and prospects of sustainable
plastic production forms are the focus of this write-up. The petroleum based plastics were
compared with bio-plastics. The best way of producing plastics from surplus renewable sources
such as coconut fibre, bamboo, palm fronds, pineapple leaves among…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile      


Methyl ester, also called biodiesel, is an alternative fuel for diesel engine that is produced from
renewable agricultural products. Biodiesel is an alkyl ester obtained from vegetable oils, waste
cooking oils or animal fats via transesterification process. The three types of fuels used for the
tests are pure biodiesel (BIOO), blended Biodiesel (B20), which is a 20 percent mixture of
biodiesel with 80 percent diesel fuel, as well as pure diesel fuel (100%) derived from crude
petroleum. The characterized fuels…
READ MORE Download Staff Profile